The emotional experience of films: does Audio Description make a difference?
Experiencing emotion is one of the main reasons why we watch movies, go to the theatre or expose ourselves to different audiovisual manifestations. Audio Description attempts to provide the visually impaired with an experience similar to that offered by audiovisual formats such as cinema, dance or theatre. This paper focuses on Audio Description of films, with the aim of discovering whether there are differences between the emotional experience of films as whole audiovisual texts, films without the visual component (only music, sounds and dialogue) and films with Audio Description. We designed a study to measure the emotional experience in sighted and in visually impaired audiences. More specifically, we worked with three basic emotions (disgust, fear and sadness) and 15 film scenes that had been previously validated as effective stimuli in the psychological literature. Employing a Likert questionnaire (PANASX) and heart rate measurement, we compared the emotional impact of these scenes in three different versions (normal films, films without images and films with Audio Description) for 70 sighted and visually impaired subjects. Results showed statistically significant differences between the three stated versions for disgust and fear, but not for sadness.
Este artículo es puro, ya que se quiere investigar y examinar el tema. Es descriptivo porque el autor está interesado en mencionar de qué manera el audio de una película influye en los sentimientos de una persona. Y, por último, es function oriented porque el contexto social es a lo que está orientado el artículo, ya que las personas tienen el rol más importante en la investigación.
Processing Subtitles and Film Images
Subtitling is often assumed to be a solely linguistic operation which involves the translation of dialogue into written captions. However, from a viewer’s perspective subtitled productions include more than just linguistic information. In addition to subtitles, viewers have to process film images in order to establish a coherent narrative. Both types of information must be received through the same visual channel. This article examines a number of significant linguistic and non-linguistic features of subtitles and film which potentially affect the way viewers watch subtitled productions. Non-linguistic features are examined in the context of recent studies on eye-movement behaviour, including a comparative study involving deaf and hearing viewers conducted by the authors.
Este artículo es puro, ya que se quiere investigar y examinar el tema. Es descriptivo porque el autor está interesado en mencionar de qué manera influyen los subtítulos en los espectadores. Y, por último, es function oriented porque el contexto sociocultural es a lo que está orientado el artículo.
The Simpsons/Los Simpson
Analysis of an Audiovisual Translation
This paper presents a case study of the Spanish translation of the famous American TV series ‘The Simpsons’, focusing on the translation of humour, which is the dominant textual function of the series (Nord 1997). Our analysis draws on Agost’s theoretical framework (1999) for the study of audiovisual products, which is in turn based on Hatim and Mason’s model (1990). For the purposes of this paper, we have limited our analysis to the categories for the translation of humour advanced by Zabalbeascoa (1992) and Fuentes Luque (2000). Following these models, the analysis is divided into three sections: (a) the pragmatic dimension, where we analyze the contextual focus, intentionality and conversational maxims of the source text and their translation in the target text; (b) the semiotic dimension, where we concentrate on the translation of ideological and cultural components and intertextual references; and (c) the communicative dimension, where we analyze use (field, tenor and mode) and user (sociolinguistic) varieties. Our objective is to describe and evaluate the chosen strategies of translation. Our conclusion seems to confirm the thesis put forward by theorists such as Toury (1995) and Venuti (1995) that the translator intervenes actively and creatively in the text to make it suit his or her own purposes.
En primer lugar, este artículo es puro, ya que es una investigación. En segundo lugar, es un estudio de la traducción teórica porque se quiere confirmar una tesis a raíz de los resultados encontrados en el análisis. Además, es parcial porque tiene un enfoque al hacer el análisis. Este enfoque es area restricted, puesto que la cultura es el aspecto central del éxito de la traducción humorística.
Translation and Music
Changing Perspectives, Frameworks and Significance
Until quite recently, research on translation and music has been rather neglected within translation studies, despite the vital role that music plays in the day-to-day lives of individuals and the development, cohesion and organization of societies. The reasons behind this peripheral disciplinary position are explored and a critical examination of recent research on the topic is offered. Translation and music is shown to be a fascinating area to explore, not only for specialized translators/scholars but also for researchers in translation studies, cultural studies, media studies and musicology. By investigating the role played by translation in the context of musical performances, we can enrich our understanding of what forms translation can take and how it may relate to other forms of expression. The article concludes by suggesting future avenues of research and theoretical frameworks, especially favouring the use of a descriptive and systemic approach to both micro- and macro-level investigations in this field.
Este artículo es aplicado porque es útil para el traductor. Además, es translator training porque, como menciona el autor, los resultados van a enriquecer la comprensión de la traducción y su relación con otras maneras de expresión.
Translating Classic Fiction for Mass Markets
This study examines the characteristics of the translations of the Clube do Livro, the first major book club in Brazil, which aimed at selling its low-cost issues to lower-middle-class and working-class readers who were not previously regular book buyers. Very little work has been done on translations directed at a popular market, surprisingly perhaps, when one thinks of both the enormous press runs and range of translated bestsellers, popular magazines, comics and book club issues.1 The article starts with a brief history of the Clube do Livro, followed by an examination of the way in which it was forced to make cuts and changes in its translations in order to avoid tough censorship at the end of the sixties and beginning of the seventies. It further examines the paternalistic and educational aspect of the book club, which often resulted in bland translations that ‘corrected’ any non-standard language in the original. Translations produced for the mass market, referred to here as ‘factory translation’, have specific production line characteristics; these are described in some detail. Finally, using the ideas of Janice Radway on romance fiction and of Michel de Certeau on popular culture, the conclusion looks positively at the Clube do Livro and stresses that the reader may use such texts for beneficial personal ends.
En primer lugar, este artículo, es puro ya que su objetivo es investigar el tema mencionado. Es descriptivo porque se menciona los resultados demostrados. También es product oriented, ya que se basa en examinar las características de diferentes textos meta de un libro específico.