Study guide for Midterm Exam Para Empezar Essential questions



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Spanish IV Honors

Essential questions, vocabulary and grammar P.E to C-2



Study guide for Midterm Exam
Para Empezar

Essential questions:
1. What is your daily routine?
2. What do you do in school and after school?
3. How do you conjugate Spanish verbs that are irregular in the first person and in every person?
4. What is a reflexive verb?
5. What are reflexive pronouns?


Verbos irregulares





Remember that some verbs in Spanish are irregular in the first person singular of the present tense. Look at the following examples. Note that other verbs you know that are conjugated like conocer are obedecer, ofrecer, and parecer.







conocer

conozco

salir

salgo




dar

doy

traer

traigo




hacer

hago

ver

veo




poner

pongo

caer

caigo




saber

























Also, there are some verbs in Spanish that are irregular in all the persons of the present tense:





ser




ir




decir

soy

somos

eres

sois

es

son







voy

vamos

vas

vais

va

van







digo

decimos

dices

decís

dice

dicen





estar




oír




tener

estoy

estamos

estás

estáis

está

están







oigo

oímos

oyes

oís

oye

oyen







tengo

tenemos

tienes

tenéis

tiene

tienen






Presente de los verbos con cambios de raíz





Remember that in Spanish there are three groups of stem-changing verbs. The stem change occurs in all forms except the nosotros(as) and vosotros(as) forms. Here are the present-tense forms of perder (ie), poder (ue), and pedir (i).





perder (e → ie)




poder (o → ue)




pedir (e → i)

pierdo

perdemos

pierdes

perdéis

pierde

pierden







puedo

podemos

puedes

podéis

puede

pueden







pido

pedimos

pides

pedís

pide

piden






Other verbs like perder are: empezar, querer, preferir, pensar, divertirse, despertarse, sentirse, mentir, cerrar, comenzar, entender.





Other verbs like poder are: jugar


(uue), contar, costar, encontrar, recordar, volar, dormir, volver, devolver, acostarse, almorzar.



Other verbs like pedir are servir, repetir, reír, sonreír, seguir, vestirse.
























Los verbos reflexivos





To say that people do something to or for themselves, you use reflexive verbs. A reflexive verb has two parts: a reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos, os) and a verb form. Here are all the present-tense forms of levantarse:





me levanto

nos levantamos

te levantas

os levantáis

se levanta

se levantan









Many reflexive verbs in Spanish describe daily routine actions: acostarse (ue), afeitarse, arreglarse, bañarse, cepillarse, despertarse (ie), ducharse, lavarse, pintarse, ponerse, secarse, vestirse (i).






Except for se, the reflexive pronouns are the same as the indirect object pronouns. They usually come before the verb, but they may also be attached to an infinitive.






Me lavo la cara.

Voy a lavarme la cara.






Remember that with reflexive verbs, you usually use the definite article with parts of the body or articles of clothing.








Me pongo la chaqueta.

Me cepillo los dientes.









Verbos que se conjugan como gustar





You already know several verbs that always use the indirect object pronouns me, te, le, nos, os, les:






encantar



to love



importar



to matter




gustar




to like




interesar




to be interested in































These verbs all use the same construction: indirect object pronoun + verb + subject.






Me gusta el fútbol.



¿Te interesan las pinturas?


















Remember, in the sentences above, the verb forms gusta (singular) and interesan (plural) agree with the subjects fútbol and pinturas. The words me and te are indirect object pronouns.





Adjetivos posesivos





Remember that possessive adjectives in Spanish agree in gender and number with the nouns they describe. They are placed in front of the noun.







Singular









mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro



vuelo




mi, tu, su, nuestra, vuestra




maleta






















Plural









mis, tus, sus, nuestros, vuestros



vuelos




mis, tus, sus, nuestras, vuestras




maletas



















Since su and sus have many meanings, use the prepositional phrase de + name/pronoun instead for clarity or emphasis.






Sus pantalones son elegantes.




¿Los pantalones de ella?




No, los de usted.




General rule: the Preterite moves a story’s action forward in the past.


EX: Visitamos el Museo de Arte Moderno, vimos muchos cuadros famosos, y después

fuimos a un restaurante elegante donde comimos pescado.


Capítulo 1

Essential questions:


  1. How do you talk about places and outdoor activities?



  1. How do you talk about the weather?



  1. How do you talk about animals and insects that you might encounter?



  1. How do you conjugate and use regular verbs in the preterite?



  1. How do you conjugate and use irregular verbs in the preterite?



  1. How do you talk about outdoor sports, actions that go with them, and accidents that can occur?



  1. How do you talk about competitions and reactions to them?



  1. How do you cojugate "ir" and "ser" in the preterite?



  1. How do you conjugate verbs that end in -car,-gar,and -zar?



  1. How do you talk about camping and things you take on a camping trip?



  1. How do you talk about features of the environment?



  1. How do you talk about what you will need on a camping trip?



  1. How do you talk about activities on a camping trip?



  1. How do you conjugate and use verbs with spelling changes from i to y in the preterite?



  1. How do you conjugate and use irregular verbs in the preterite?



  1. How do you conjugate and use stem-changing verbs in the preterite?


Vocabulario



para hablar de actividades




acercarse a

to approach




andar

to walk, to move




dar un paseo

to take a walk, stroll




dejar de

to stop (doing something)




escalar

to climb (a rock or mountain)




perderse

to get lost




refugiarse

to take shelter

 




para describir la naturaleza




el bosque

wood, forest




el desierto

desert




hermoso, -a

beautiful




la naturaleza

nature




el paisaje

landscape




el refugio

refuge, shelter




la roca

rock




la sierra

sierra, mountain range




el valle

valley

 




para hablar de cámping




los binoculares

binoculars




la brújula

compass




la linterna

flashlight




el repelente de
insectos

insect repellent




el saco de dormir

sleeping bag




la tienda de
acampar

tent




 

para hablar del tiempo




caer granizo

to hail




el granizo

hail




el relámpago

lightning




el trueno

thunder




 

para indicar que sucede algo




suceder

to occur




tener lugar

to take place




 

para indicar cuándo sucede algo




al amanecer

at dawn




al anochecer

at dusk




al principio

at the beginning




un rato

a while




una vez allí

once there




para prepararse para un evento deportivo




el entrenamiento

training




entrenarse

to train




hacer un esfuerzo

to make an effort




inscribirse

to register




la inscripción

registration
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