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Título: Determinants of dermal exposure among Nicaraguan subsistence farmers during pesticide applications with backpack sprayers.


Autor: Blanco LE, Aragón A, Lundberg I, Lidén C, Wesseling C, Nise G.

Título: Determinantes de exposición dérmica en trabajadores nicaraguenses durante la aplicación de pesicidas con bombas de espalda.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, UNAN-León, León, Nicaragua. blanco@unanleon.edu.ni

Publicación: : Blanco LE et al. Determinants of dermal exposu...[PMID: 15601757]

Tipo de documento: Journal Article

OBJECTIVES: Identification of pesticide exposure determinants has become an issue in explaining exposure variability and improving control measures. Most studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify relevant dermal exposure determinants among Nicaraguan subsistence farmers. METHODS: Field data on possible determinants were collected during 32 pesticide applications through observation and supplementary videorecording. A multistep reduction strategy brought down the 110 potential exposure determinants to 27 variables, which were grouped as worksite, spray equipment, working practices, clothing or hygiene practices related. Dermal exposure was quantified with a modification of Fenske's visual scoring method. Multivariate linear regression modeling within groups and across groups was performed. RESULTS: In the within-group analyses, work practices, spray equipment and worksite related determinants explained 52, 33 and 25% of the exposure variability, respectively. Clothing and hygiene practices were weaker determinants and did not always reduce the exposure. The final model included determinants from all groups except hygiene practices and explained 69% of the exposure variability. A less restricted model increased the explained variability to 75%. Several novel determinants were identified, including spraying on a muddy terrain, dew on plants, sealing the tank lid with a cloth and wiping sweat from the face. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a combination of observation and visual scoring techniques can provide valuable information on determinants of pesticide exposure and affected body parts under developing country conditions. The results could be used to develop job-specific questionnaires and to design training and preventive programs.

MH- *Agriculture/instrumentationMH- ClothingMH- HumansMH- HygieneMH- NicaraguaMH- Occupational Exposure/adverse effects/*analysis/prevention & controlMH- Pesticides/*toxicityMH- Pilot ProjectsMH- Rural HealthMH- Skin/drug effectsMH- Workplace

PMID: 15601757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



P3

Efectos crónicos
Se eliminan los artículos donde hay descripción de efectos crónicos, pero se dejan aquellos que describen grupos de estudios epidemiológicos. De literatura grs se deja una referencia por considerarla un aporte a la vigilancia.
Título: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES - PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR RURAL PHYSICIANS

Autor (es): E Zejda, H H McDuffie, and J A Dosman

Titulo en español: EPIDEMIOLOGIA DE LOS RIESGOS PARA LA SALUD Y SEGURIDAD EN LA AGRICULTURA Y LA INDUSTRIA - APLICACIONES PRÁCTICAS RURAL PARA MÉDICOS

Publicación: West J Med. 1993 January; 158(1): 56–63.

Ttipo de documento. Conferences and reviews

Abstract: Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress.
Título: Health effects of chronic pesticide exposure: cancer and neurotoxicity.

Autor:Alavanja MC, Hoppin JA, Kamel F.

Nombre en español: Efectos sobre la salud de la exposición crónica a pesticidas: cáncer y neurotoxicidad

Publicación: Annu Rev Public Health. 2004;25:155-97

Tipo de documento: Journal article. Review

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Blvd., Rockville, Maryland 20892, USA. alavanjm@mail.nih.gov



Abstract: Pesticides are widely used in agricultural and other settings, resulting in continuing human exposure. Epidemiologic studies indicate that, despite premarket animal testing, current exposures are associated with risks to human health. In this review, we describe the routes of pesticide exposures occurring today, and summarize and evaluate the epidemiologic studies of pesticide-related carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity in adults. Better understanding of the patterns of exposure, the underlying variability within the human population, and the links between the animal toxicology data and human health effects will improve the evaluation of the risks to human health posed by pesticides. Improving epidemiology studies and integrating this information with toxicology data will allow the human health risks of pesticide exposure to be more accurately judged by public health policy makers.

PMID: 15015917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Palabras clave: Environmental ExposureMH- HumansMH- Neoplasms/*chemically induced/*epidemiologyMH- Neurotoxicity Syndromes/*epidemiologyMH- Occupational ExposureMH- Pesticides/*toxicityMH- Risk
Título: Persistent symptomatology in workers industrially exposed to organophosphate pesticides

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