Personality Development during adolescence



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Personality Development during adolescence

  • Theme 3
  • CHANGES IN SELF-CONCEPT: CONTENTS
  • Physical
  • Changes
  • New body image New physical skills
  • Review of physical self-concept Many references to physical traits and competences
  • Social Changes
  • Changes in relationships with parents New social contexts New roles
  • Multiple self-concept Many references to social aspects
  • CHANGES IN SELF-CONCEPT: CONTENTS
  • Cognitive Changes
  • Competence to classify, abstraction, instrospection, planning
  • More references to psychological traits, plans of future and aspirations, use of abstract concepts
  • Primeras abstracciones que integran características relacionadas; abstracciones compartimentalizadas, no se detectan ni integran las incompatibilidades
  • Primeras conexiones entre las abstracciones y entre rasgos opuestos; confusión ante la existencia de características contradictorias.
  • Abstracciones de orden superior que integran abstracciones más elementales y que resuelven las contradicciones.
  • CAMBIOS EN EL AUTOCONCEPTO: ESTRUCTURA
  • ADOLESCENCIA INICIAL
  • ADOLESCENCIA MEDIA
  • ADOLESCENCIA TARDÍA
  • The Multiple Self
  • School
  • Family
  • Romantic Relations
  • Peers
  • Individual differences in coherence
  • Less coherence in early adolescence
  • The False self and the real self
  • Trying to please and be accepted
  • Search and exploration of alternatives
  • Incentive for change
  • Influence on self-esteem
  • SELF-ESTEEM DURING ADOLESCENCE
  • Diversification: new areas related to new roles and new concerns
  • Global self-esteem versus partial self-esteem
  • Gender Differences:
  • girls: physical attractiveness & social/interpersonal skills
  • boys: sport competence
  • DETERMINANTS OF SELF-ESTEEM
  • Relationships with parents
  • * Parents support & affection
  • * Excessive criticism and demands
  • High Self-esteem
  • Low Self-esteem
  • DETERMINANTS OF SELF-ESTEEM
  • DETERMINANTS OF SELF-ESTEEM
  • Relations between self-concept and expectancies: High discrepancy = low self-esteem
  • High school achievement = High self-esteem
  • Physical illness and handicaps = low self-esteem
  • Belonging to minority groups: results are contradictory
  • CHANGES IN SELF-ESTEEM DURING ADOLESCENCE
  • Decreases in early adolescence due to:
  • * Puberal physical changes
  • * Changes in school context
  • * Beginning of romantic relationships
  • Gender differences in self-esteem
  • ERIK ERIKSON (1902-1994)
  • He gave more importance to social and cultural factors than to sexuality
  • He underscored the importance of adolescence for forging personality
  • His theory on psychosocial development expanded to the life-span
  • Eight stages: every stage included a developmental task (sucess or failiure)
  • His concept of stage was less strict than Piaget’s
  • Developmental task for adolescence is search for identity (Identity achievement versus confusion) and importance of moratorium
  • PERSONAL IDENTITY
  • - Identity crisis: a) breaking bonding with parents and search for identification models b) Dealing with new roles and taking important decisions
  • - Crisis is necessary for self reestructuration
  • - For Erikson adolescence is a psychosocial moratorium in which boy or girl, far from adulthood responsibilities must search for identity through experimentation with new roles and identities
  • Identity requires a personal consistency and stability over time and situations that allow the adolescent to recognize himself
  • PERSONAL IDENTITY: EMPIRICAL APPROACH
  • JAMES MARCIA
  • * He refined and expanded Erikson’s model on identity
  • * His dissertation: “Determination and construct validity of Ego Identity Statuses”
  • * He developed a structured interview to evaluate identity status in adolescents
  • * He found four identity statuses
  • IDENTITY STATUS
  • The criteria for attainment of a mature identity is based on two esential variables: crisis and commitment.
  • ¿NEGATIVE-IDENTITY?
  • Status
  • Crisis
  • Commitment
  • Ident. Difussion
  • No
  • No
  • Foreclosure
  • No
  • Yes
  • Moratorium
  • Yes
  • No
  • Ident. Achievement
  • Yes
  • Yes
  • DIFUSSIÓN
  • PROGRESSIVE MODEL
  • MORATORIUM
  • LOGRO
  • MORATORIUM
  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • FORECLOSURE
  • MORATORIUM
  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • CHANGES IN IDENTITY STATUS
  • REGRESSIVE MODEL
  • ACHIE-VEMENT
  • ACHIEVE-MENT
  • MORATORIUM
  • Regression of disequilibrium
  • MORATORIUM
  • Regression of rigidification
  • FORECLOSURE
  • Regression of disorganization
  • ACHIE-VEMENT
  • DIFUSSI0N
  • FORECLOSURE
  • MORATORIUM
  • CHANGES IN IDENTITY STATUS
  • STAGNATION MODEL
  • Individuals who remain in difussion or foreclosure statuses
  • FORECLOSURE
  • DIFUSSIÓN
  • IDENTITY STATUS
  • Timing for resolution of identity crisis: ¿early, medium or late adolescence, or emergent adulthood?
  • Promote or hinder this resolution the current social conditions?
  • IDENTITY STATUS
  • ¿Consistency or gaps in identity achievement?
  • Gaps or imbalance... but from a relevant domain can consistently build other
  • SOCIAL ATTITUDE
  • POLITICAL IDEAS
  • PROFESSIONAL CHOICE
  • Factors influencing identity achievement
  • Family context
  • AUTHORITARIAN FORECLOSURE AUTHORITATIVE ACHIEV.
  • Factors influencing identity achievement
  • Socio-cultural context: Traditional cultures and ethnic minorities
  • Assigned and chosen components of identity
  • PROCESAMIENTO DE INFORMACIÓN, ESTILO DE AFRONTAMIENTO Y ESTATUS DE IDENTIDAD
  • ESTILO DE PROCESAMIENTO
  • INFORMACIONAL
  • NORMATIVO
  • EVITATIVO
  • ESTILO DE AFRONTAMIENTO
  • CENTRADO EN EL
  • PROBLEMA
  • NORMATIVO
  • EMOCIONAL-EVITATIVO
  • ESTATUS DE IDENTIDAD
  • MORATORIA
  • LOGRO
  • HIPOTECADA
  • DIFUSIÓN
  • IDENTITY STATUS AND ADOLESCENT ADJUSTMENT
  • More maldjusted individuals Anxiety and lack of control Low self-esteem and autonomy Possible psychological troubles Conformity to peer pressure High sustance use
  • Conformist, convenctional, rigid Low anxiety Steretyped relationships Dificulties for intimate relationshps Obedients & dependents from parents Low sustance use
  • DIFUSSION
  • FORECLOSURE
  • IDENTITY STATUS AND ADOLESCENT ADJUSTMENT
  • High anxiety Flexibles and undecided Shared with achieved adolescents some positive characteristics
  • Mature and autonomous subjects High self-esteem and confidence Low anxiety and good emotional adjustment Cooperative, prosocial and interested in others Advanced moral development
  • MORATORIUM
  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • Piaget model on moral development was focused on childhood
  • Kohlberg studied moral development beyond childhood, during adolescence and adulthood
  • His research
  • * 72 boys aged 10, 13 & 16 years
  • * Recorded interviews about 10 moral dilemmas
  • * He found three levels with two stages in every one (six stages)
  • Preconventional, conventional y postconventional
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL
  • 3 STAGE
  • Interpersonal approach
  • Begins at early adolescence
  • Importance of meeting the expectations of family and society of appropiate behavior
  • Importance of intentions ans feelings
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • CONVENCIONAL level
  • Stage 3 :
  • “La culpa fue del farmacéutico, fue injusto cobrando tanto por el medicamento y permitiendo a alguien morir. Heinz amaba a su mujer y quería salvarla. Yo creo que todos lo harían. No creo que deba ir a la cárcel. El juez debería tener en cuenta que el farmacéutico se estaba pasando con el precio”
  • Iván, 13 años
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL
  • 4ª STAGE
  • Begins at late adolescence or adulthood
  • Perspective focused on social order
  • The important thing is society as a whole
  • We must respect the laws, authority and perform the duties of citizens, to ensure order
  • Moral is what society defines as right
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL STAGE 4
  • “Si cada uno hiciera lo que quisiera de acuerdo con sus ideas de lo que está bien y mal, habría un gran caos. Lo único que tenemos en nuestra civilización hoy día es un tipo de estructura legal que la gente debe respetar. La sociedad necesita un marco o regulación determinados democráticamente”
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL
  • 5ª STAGE
  • Only some subjects reach it
  • Perspective focused on individual human rights
  • These basic human rights (life, freedom) are above the society and the laws.
  • Democratic proceduresto change unfair laws and social contracts
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • POSTCONVENTIONAL
  • Stage 5:
  • Es el deber del marido salvar la vida de su mujer. El hecho de que su vida esté en peligro está por encima de que cualquier norma que puedas usar para juzgar su acción. La vida es más importante que la propiedad”
  • EL DESARROLLO DEL RAZONAMIENTO MORAL
  • NIVEL POSTCONVENCIONAL
  • 6ª ETAPA
  • Only some subjects reach it
  • Democratic procedures do not ensure justice and minority rights
  • Respect for all individuals
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Cancelled by Kohlberg in his last formulations
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Qualitative differences
  • Overall structure
  • Invariant sequence
  • Hierarchical Integration
  • Universal sequence
  • CONCEPT OF STAGE IN KOHLBERG MODEL
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Cognitive development: abstraction and perspective taking
  •  Social relations: the sociocognitive conflict, participation in peer groups
  • Educational level
  • Gender: girls Stage 3
  • boys Stage 4
  • CAROL GILLIGAN AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN WOMEN
  • She said that Kohlberg only studied privileged white boys and men causing, in her opinion, a biased opinion against women
  • Boys: thinks in terms of rules and justice as abstract concepts
  • Girls : Thinks in terms of caring and relations: interpersonal perspective
  • Egocentric Perspective Concerned with their own interests
  • Interpersonal/prosocial Perspective Concerned with others’ needs
  • Interpersonal Perspective Balancing satisfaction own needs and those of others
  • Preconventional
  • Conventional
  • Postconventional


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