NeuromorfologíA: el modelo declarativo-procesal 28 mar 2011 – DÍA 30



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NEUROMORFOLOGÍA: EL MODELO DECLARATIVO-PROCESAL 28 MAR 2011 – DÍA 30

  • Neurolingüística del español
  • SPAN 4270
  • Harry Howard
  • Tulane University

ORGANIZACIÓN DEL CURSO

  • http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/SPAN4130-Neurospan/
  • El curso es apto para un electivo en neurociencia.
  • Neurolinguistics and linguistic aphasiology está en reserva en la biblioteca.
  • Human Research Protection Program
    • http://tulane.edu/asvpr/irb/index.cfm
    • Before beginning research at Tulane University, all research personnel must complete the CITI Training Program; this can be completed at www.citiprogram.org.
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REPASO

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

TAXONOMY OF MEMORY

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

SUMMARY

  • is memory for habits & skills
  • learns rule-like relations in a context
  • learns quickly, from a single presentation
  • is not available to other mental modules (= informationally encapsulated)
  • is mostly unconscious (implicit)
  • is memory for facts & events
  • learns arbitrary relations
  • learns slowly, from many presentations
  • is available to other mental modules (≠ informationally encapsulated)
  • is mostly conscious (explicit)
  • Procedural memory
  • Declarative memory
  • 03/25/11
  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

THE NEURAL SUBSTRATE OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY

  • medial temporal lobe structures
    • hippocampal region (the dentate gyrus, the subicular complex, and the hippocampus itself)
    • its input/output cortices: entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex
  • some subcortical structures, such as thalamus
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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

THE HIPPOCAMPUS

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

GENERAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT BY THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

BASIC SCHEME OF INFORMATION FLOW THROUGH THE BASAL GANGLIA

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

THE DECLARATIVE/PROCEDURAL MODEL OF LANGUAGE

  • The declarative memory system subserves the lexicon.
  • The procedural memory system subserves grammar.
  • 03/25/11
  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

DECLARATIVE MEMORY & THE LEXICON

  • stores all arbitrary, idiosyncratic word-specific knowledge, including word meanings, word sounds, and abstract representations such as word category
  • includes representations of simple (non-derivable) words such as cat, bound morphemes such as -ed, irregular morphological forms, verb complements, and idioms
  • also contains complex forms and abstract structures that are “regular”
  • supports a superpositional associative memory, which allows for generalizations across representations. For example, the memorization of phonologically similar stem-irregular past tense pairs (e.g. spring – sprang, sing – sang) may allow for memory-based generalization to new irregularizations, either from real words (bring – brang) or from novel ones (spling – splang). This ability to generalize could underlie some degree of productivity within the memory system
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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

PROCEDURAL MEMORY & GRAMMAR

  • underlies the learning of new, and the computation of already-learned, rule-based procedures that govern the regularities of language
  • particularly those procedures related to combining items into complex structures that have precedence (sequential) and hierarchical relations
  • builds rule-governed structure, i.e. the sequential and hierarchical combination – “merging” or concatenation – of forms and representations into complex structures:
    • syntax (word order)
    • inflectional and derivational morphology – at least for default “regulars” but also for irregulars that appear to be affixed
    • phonology (the combination of sounds)
    • compositional semantics (the meaning of the composition of words into complex structures)
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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

GENERAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT BY THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

NEUROMORFOLOGÍA

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

RUTAS SENCILLA VS. DUAL

  • En un modelo de ruta sencilla, todas las palabras se reconocen por medio del mismo mecanismo:
    • como palabras enteras en modelos que no hacen una segmentación, o
    • como morfemas sueltas en modelos que hacen una segmentación.
  • En un modelo de ruta dual
    • algunas palabras pasan por una segmentación y otras no, o
    • todas las palabras pasan tanto por una segmentación como por una analisis como unidad.
  • 03/25/11
  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

¿QUÉ PALABRAS NECESITAN SEMENTACIÓN?

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  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University

EL PRÓXIMO DÍA

  • Más neuromorfología
  • 03/25/11
  • SPAN 4130 - Harry Howard - Tulane University


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