Mle during the Spanish Period: Philippine Dictionaries from 1521 to 1896



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MLE during the Spanish Period: Philippine Dictionaries from 1521 to 1896

Amelia E. Punzalan

University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development


U.P. Diliman, Quezon City

63 – 2- 927 4276 ext 104



amelia.punzalan@up.edu.ph



ABSTRACT

What was the language of instruction used by the Spanish friars in the evangelization campaign?  What was the language policy during the period? What was the status of dictionaries in the Philippines from 1521 to 1896?

The paper will try to answer the above questions based on an initial study on dictionaries in the Philippines written from 1521 to 1896 as well as on a representative analysis of two major Tagalog-Spanish dictionaries written in 1624 and 1754 namely, Vocabulario Tagalo [7]  and Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, respectively [4].

The paper may provide insights into the language of instruction policy and intellectualization issue about Philippine languages. 



Categories and Subject Descriptors

Dictionaries, language policy, Spanish period



General Terms

Philippine dictionaries



Keywords

Dictionaries during the Spanish period, language policy


  1. INTRODUCTION


The main purpose of the Spaniards in coming to the Philippine archipelago was to baptize and instruct the natives in the Christian faith as well as to have them subject to the Spanish Crown. It may be recalled that Ferdinand Magellan, the great navigator, arrived in Cebu on March16, 1521. After the blood compact ceremony with Rajah Humabon, the latter agreed to be baptized along with his men. However, Magellan might have a big communication problem with Raja Lapu-lapu of Mactan. The Malay assistant-interpreter (Enrique de Malacca) of Magellan seemed not to help in convincing the Rajah to be baptized. Magellan along with his 26 men died in the hands of Lapu-lapu.

The language problem might be one of the concerns taken into consideration when Commander Miguel Lopez de Legaspi including six (6) Agustinian friars arrived in Cebu on February 13, 1565. Faced with the wide linguistic diversity of the natives, the missionary friars were aware, from the very beginning, of the necessity of mastering the language in order to evangelize. Indeed, one of the three first works published in the Philippines is a bilingual book on the Christian faith, Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua española y tagala Manila 1593.

The Royal decree of 1594 granted the allocation of territories for equitable evangelization campaign of the four religious orders as follows:

Dominicans Cagayan, Pangasinan, Batanes

Agustinians Visayas, Ilocos, Pampanga

Franciscans Camarines

Jesuits other parts of Visayas, Sulu, Mindanao

However, all the four religious orders were given parishes in Manila and the surrounding Tagalog provinces.

This arrangement allowed all the Orders to cultivate Tagalog, and permitted the Orders to concentrate their efforts in at least four other important languages.

  1. LANGUAGE POLICY


The language policy of the Eclessiastical Junta in 1582 was to use the native language in preaching the Christian faith. The same language policy was sent to Captain General Tello in February 1596 for the 264 Spanish friars in the Philippines. The aim was to accomplish the two mandates: reduction, and evangelization. This policy allowed the establishment of chairs for the study of the local languages and hence, publication of catechisms, confessionals, grammars and dictionaries. Although subsequent language policy of the King of Spain (dated 1686, 1770, 1772, 1774 & 1792) was the use of Spanish, the Church maintained the use of local languages.
  1. DICTIONARIES PUBLISHED from 1521 to 1896


It was recorded that about 70 manuscripts of completed dictionaries written from 1565 to 1898 were not at all published. Permission from both the Church and the King of Spain must be obtained before a book is published. It was a long process and sometimes, some authors lose their patience and do their own printing without putting the name/s of author/s and date, of course.

Based on the studies of Medina (1972) and Hidaldo (1977), shown below is a list of published Philippine dictionaries from 1521 to 1896, more than 375 years of writing dictionaries mostly undertaken by friars.



Year and Place of Publication

Title of the Dictionary

Name of Author (Religious Order)

1521

Cebuano Wordlist

(In The Philippine Islands by Blair and Robertson: 1908. Cleveland)



Antonio Pigafetta

1580

Arte Vocabulario y Confessionario – Pampango

(mentioned by Perez in Catalogo and by Blake A Bibliography of Philippine Languages. 1920)



Diego Ochoa (Agustinian)

1580

Arte y Vocabulario – Tagala

(Binanggit ni Perez sa Catalogo V. 3 1580)



Juan Quiñones (Agustinian)

1610

Bataan


Arte y Reglas de Lengua Tagal 785 p. 1832 2nd ed (Manila) 919 p.

Francisco Blancas de San Jose (Dominican)

1613

Pila



Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala

707 p.



Pedro de San Buena Ventura (Franciscan)

1613

Manila


Diccionario Ibanag – Español


Jose Bugarin


1628

Manila


Arte y Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala

Teodoro Madre de Dios (Dominican)

1637

Manila


1841

1842


1894

Bocabulario de Lengua Bisaia Hiligueyna y Haraia de la Isla de Panai y Sugbu y ar alas delas Islas

Note: Also published in 1841 – and in 1842; expanded by Julian Martin (Agustino). Last published as “Arte de la Lengua Bisaya-Hiligaynan de la Isla de Panay” in 1894 reorganized and expanded by Jose Aparicio



Alonso de Mentrida (Agustinian)

1647


Arte de la Lengua Bicol

Andres de San Agustin (Fraciscan)

1648

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala.

Geronimo Montes y Escamilla de San Antonio (Jesuit)

1662


Arte Bisaya de Leyte y Samar

Domingo Esguerra (Jesuit)

1663 Manila

1747


2nd ed

Manila


Arte dela Lengua Bisaya de la Provincia de Leyte

Domingo Esguerra

(Jesuit)


1679

Mexico


Arte de la Lengua Tagala, Sacado de Diversos Artes

Agustin de la Magdalena (Franciscan)

1703

Manila


Compedio de la Arte dela Lengua Tagala

2nd limbag 1747

3rd limbag 1879


Gaspar de San Agustin (Agustinian)

1703

Tayabas


Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala

2nd ed 1749 Manila

3rd ed 1835 Manila


Domingo de los Santos (Franciscan)

1711

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Bisaya

551 p


Matheo Sanchez

(Jesuit)


1729

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Camarina o Bicol

Anonimo (Franciscan)

1729

1st ed

Manila


Arte de la Lengua Pampanga

1736 2nd ed

1916 3rd ed


Diego Bergaño

(Agustinian)



1729 & 1736

Manila


Arte de la Lengua Pampanga (10 at 20 Parte)

1916 3rd ed.



Diego Bergaño (Agustinian)

1732

Manila


Bocabulario de Pampango en Romance y Diccionario de Romance en Pampango

1860 reprinted



Diego Bergaño (Agustinian)

1732

1st ed

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga

(1860 – reprinted)



Diego Bergaño

1739 Lisboa

Arte de Lengua Bicol

(2nd Ed., Lisboa)



Andres de SanAgustin(Franciscan)

1740

Manila


Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala

Tomas Ortiz

(Agustinian)



1742

Mexico


Tagalysmo Elucidado

Salinas Melchor de Oyanguren (Franciscan)

1745

Sampaloc


Arte de la Lengua Tagala y Manual Tagalog para la Administracion de los Santos Sacramentos (1796, 1850 and 1865 editions)

Sebastian de Totanes (Franciscan)


1754

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Bicol

(May be from the manuscript of 1628-“Diccionario del Idioma Bicol”

Reprinted in 1865


Marcos de Lisboa (Franciscan)


1754

Manila


1832

Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala

(2nd Ed. 1832 Valladolid, Espana at Manila

3rd Ed. 1860 Manila)


Juan de Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar (Jesuit)

1754

Manila


Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala

Tabaxada por varios Sugitos, Dactos y Graves



Juan Jose de Noceda

(Jesuit)


1754

Manila


Diccionario Tagalog

Diego de la Asumpcion (Franciscan)

1760

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Bisaya – Zebuana

Francisco Encina

(Agustinian)



1780

Manila


Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala

Tomas Ortiz (Agustinian)

1795

Manila


Arte de la Lengua Bicol para la Enzeñanza de este Idioma en la Provincia de Camarines

(2nd printing)



Andres de San Agustin

(Franciscan)



1804(?)


Arte de la Lengua Zebuana

616 p published in 1801according to Retana 1

There is another edition in 1836





1808

London


Bocabulario Chino-Espanol de Lengua Sangleys

(A Chinese dialect spoken in the Philippines)



John Leyden

1826

Manila


Arte Nuevo de la Lengua Ibanag

(With 2 editions: 1854 and 1865

2nd ed)


Jose Maria Fausto de Cuevas

(Dominican)



1836

Arte de la Lengua Cebuana

168 p





1840

Manila


Arte de la Lengua Pangasinan o Caboloan

198 p


Mariano Pellicer

(Agustinian)



1849

Manila


Vocabulario de la Lengua Ilocano

356 p.


Andres Carro

(Agustinian)



1850

Madrid


Gramatica de la Lengua Tagala dispuesta para mas facil inteligencia de los religiosos principianten, con un breve confesario y otras varias materias.

171 p.


Manuel Buzeto

(Agustinian)



1851

Manila


Diccionario Bisaya-Español (634 p.)

2nd ed 1866 (388 p)

3rd ed 1885 (2 vol.) Vol 2 is entitled Diccionario Español-Bisaya inedit by Jose Sanchez del Carmen


Juan Felix de la Encarnacion

(Agustinian)



1852

Manila


Diccionario Español-Bisaya

6 + 573 p.



Juan Felix de Encarnacion

1854

Manila


Ejercicio Cotidiano, iti Amanuyang Castila Bildug Ne Quing Amawing Capanpangan 308 p.

Luisa Gonzaga de Leon

1854

Manila


Diccionario de Terminus Comunes Tagalo-Castellano

Rosalio Serrano

1855

Manila


Grammatica Bisaya-Cebuana

160, 44(2) p.



Nicolas Gonzales de San Vicente Ferrer

1860

Manila


Vademecum Filipino o Manual del Conversacion Familiar Español-Tagalo, Segundo de un Curioso Vocabulario de Modismos Manileño Reprinted 4x 1869-1873

Venancio Maria de Abella

1865

Manila


Diccionario Pangasinan-Español

(reorganized and expanded by Fr. Pedro Vilanova)



Lorenzo Fernandez Cosgaya

(Agustinian)



1867

Manila


Diccionario Español-Ibanag; o sea, Tesauro Hispano-Cagayan, sacado de los manuscritos, y nuevamente corr. Y añadido en gran parte

511 p.


Dominicans in Cagayan province

1869

Manila


Gramatica Hispano-Ilocano

225 p.


Gabriel Vivo y Juderias

1872

Madrid


Nueva Gramatica Tagalog: Teorico-Practica

522 p.


Joaquin de Coria

(Franciscan)



1872

Manila


2nd ed

Arte de Idioma Visaya de Samar Y Leite

135 p.


Antonio Figueroa

(Franciscan)



1872

Manila


Lecciones de gramatica Hispano-Tagala

Jose Hevia y Campamanes Dominican

1872

Manila


Nuevo Diccionario Manual

Rosalio Serrano

1873

Manila


Diccionario Ilocano-Castellano

228 p.


Gabriel Vivo y Juderias

1876

1st ed


Binondo

Nuevo Vocabulario o Manual de Conversaciones en Español, Tagalo y Pampango 80 p. Reprinted 8x

1882 – 2nd ed; 1893 – 3rd ed



Eligio Fernandez

1876

Manila


Cursos de Lengua Panayana

Raymundo Lozano y Megia

(Agustinian)



1876

(1st ed)


1892

(2nd ed)


Tambobong

Gramatica Hispano-Ilocano

Jose Naves

(Agustinian)



1878

Manila


Ensayo de Gramatica Hispano-Tagala

302 p.


Toribio Miguella y Arnedo

1884

Manila


Breve Compendio de Gramatica Iloco-Castellano

98 p.


Gabriel Vivo y Juderias

1884

Manila


Vocabulario Militar y Guia de Conversacion Español-Tagalo-Visaya

Eusebio Salva

1886

Manila


Gramatica na isinauikang Tagalog nang sa Castila sa Caparaanang mga Tanong at Sagot (Gramatica Traducida en Lengua Tagala de Castellano…)

202 p.


Asiscio F. Vallin y Bustillo

1887

Manila


Gramatica Hispano-Visaya, con algunas lecciones practices intercaladas en el texto que facilitan a los niños indigenas de las provincias de Leyte y Samar la verdadera y genuine expression de la Lengua Castellana

Antonio Sanchez de la Rosa (Franciscan)



1887

Barcelona



Metodo Teorico-Practica y Compendiado para aprender en Brevisimo tiempo, el Lenguaje Tagalog 135 p.

Julius Miles

(pseudonyon)



1888

Singapore



Compendido de Historia Universal desde la creacion del Mundo Hasta la venida de Jesucristo, y un Breve Vocabulario en Castellano y en Moro-Maguindanao, por un Padre Misionero de la Compania de Jesus

Jacinto Juanmarti (Jesuit)

1888

Manila


Vocabulario Iloco-Español

Mariano Garcia (ed.)

1889

3rd ed

Manila


Vocabulario; o Manual de Dialogos en Español y Bisaya 80 p.

Dionisio M. Mirasol

1889

Manila


Compendio de Gramatica Bisaya-Española, adaptada al sistema Ollendorff.

Ramon Zueco de San Joaquin (Agutinian)

1989

Manila


Diccionario Hispano-Tagalo-Primera Parte

Pedro Serrano Laktaw

1890

Manila


Agguriammuan tac Cagui Gasila; o Gramatica Ibanag-Castellana 317 p.

Pedro Nolasco de Medio (Agustinian)

1890

Barcelona



La Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala

Jose Rizal

1892

Manila


Diccionario Bagobo-Español 64 p.

Mateo Gisbert (Jesuit)

1892

Manila


Diccionario Tiruray- Español (1893 printing 201 p.

Guillermo Bennasar (Jesuit)

1892

Manila


Diccionario Moro-Maguindanao- Español 272 p.

Jacinto Juanmarti (Jesuit)

1894

Manila


Arte compendiado de la Lengua Cebuano por el Fr. Julian Bermejo

180 p.


Francisco Encina (Agustinian)

1895

Madrid


Los Antigos Alfabetos de Filipinas

Wenceslao

E. Retana



1895

Manila


Gramatica Ilocano reorganized and espanded 3548 p.

Andres Carro

1898

Manila


Vocabulario Castellano-Ingles el mas complete que ha publicado, seguido de un pequeño Diccionario Castellano-Tagalog-Ingles 60 p.

John Bordman

1898

Malabon


Gramatica bisaya para facilitar el studio del Dialecta Bisaya-Cebuano 157 p.

Felix Guillen de San Jose (Agustinian)

Based on the above list, there are 77 published dictionaries. From these and other source [7], the different languages of Philippines dictionaries are:

Aetas

Batan


Bagobo

Banaue


Bicol

Bicol (Camarina)

Bontoc

Cebuano (Zebuano)



Chinese

Gaddang


Hiligaynon (Visaya)

Ibanag (Cagayan)




Ilocano

Isinay


Lepanto

Leyte and Samar (Visaya)

Maguindanao

Panayano (Visaya)

Pangasinan

Pampango


Sulu and Malay

Tagalog


Tiruray

Zambal

  1. SAMPLE ENTRIES from TWO DICTIONARIES WRITTEN in

1624 and 1754


Below are 11 entries randomly selected from Vocabulario Tagalo written by Francisco de San Antonio in 1624 [7] and Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, by Juan de Noceda and Pedro de San Lucar 1754 [4]. Some comments are included upon comparing the two entries.

San Antonio

Noceda & Sanlucar

Comment

  1. Entri: Anhin

Anhin, tiene mucha significacio. Anhin baga? que se puede hacer? Aanhin co yaon? para que quiero aquello. Anhin ca man? por mas que te hagar? Aanhin co yaon sa loob co? en mas estimo novoluntad que todo. Aanhin ito? para que esto? Caya co binigya’y di anhin ay sugo mo. por que tu, dicen, lo mandaste? Paroon na e quitat di anhin? Venga lo que viniere. Ibig mo man ang marami, ay anhin cun iilan? que se ha de hacer si son pocos? Nasira man ang bucqir co, ay anhin? que se me da?pc. Que se me da ami? Di co anhin

Di anhin, porque Paanhin. di pa anhin

pc. Que se me da ami? Di co anhin

Di anhin, porque Paanhin. di pa anhin


There are two entries in Noceda & San Lucar while 6 entries in San Antonio with all the possible usage of the entry. Perhaps, after 130 years the facility with the language gained by the friars does not need such elaboration.

The two last examples of San Antonio were included by Noceda & Sanlucar.




  1. Anim Seis,


Manganim pa,barangay” de seis bancos: Vide: Apat


Seis. Icanim, sexton en orden. Sa icanim, sexta parte. Tiganim a cada uno seis. Inanim, hacer seis. Pinagaanim, hacer queden a cada uno seis. Papagtiganimin, acidar a cada uno con seis o tomar seis a cada uno. Pagmacaaanimin mong ipanhic, subelo en seis veces. Pacaanimin, Nagaanim, Nagcaanim, Nagcacaanim, hacer entre seis. Di umanim no llega a seis.

There is one entry each. On the other hand, Noceda & San Lucar included a comprehensive listing of the uses/ meanings/examples of the entry which is remarkable.


4. Bato

La piedra. Por la de um y man: arrojar piedras en la mar, para que se juntan pescado. Batohan. Por la de mag. labrar piedra. A este se allegan otras raices:

- Baton sorlan: el tortero del huso. (Vide: Sulir)

- Baton dala: las pesgas (l.pesas) del plomo, que echan a la atarray. (Vide: Dala)

- Bato nang palay: el arroz que no nace. (Vide:palay)

- Baton sinantanan:el peso de romana (l.balanza). Vide:sinantan

- Batong lapis: la losa (Vide: Lapis)

- Baton dalig: idem. (Vide: Dalig)

- Bato ng caray: en que guardan los instrumentos de pesar el oro o plata. (Vide:Caray)

2. Riñones del animal




pc Piedra in El que camina por ellas: tambien Namamato, tirarlas. Batohin mo si Pedro.
Arroz tostado que no se abre. Bato nang bulaclac, Bato nang binosa. pc Na, arroz que no revienta. B. in. El que come lo no reventado. Pamatohin, los cornidos, Pamatohan, el bilao, donde se echan. Ipamato, la persona para quien.
Vender peidra, cortarla. Mag. La cantera. Batohan pp.
Empedrar, Mag. Loque Han, Laque esta, Na.
Poner majon de piedra, con los juegos de antecedente
Endurecerse algo como piedra. Mag. A quien Pinag Han.
Hacer algo de piedra. Nagbabato si Pedro nang caniyang bahay. Pedro hace su casa de piedra. Cabatohan, lugar de mucha piedra. Mabatong buquid, sementera de muchas.
Riñon
Riñon de animal

More entries in San Antonio than in Noceda & San Lucar.. Moreover, the former has included much more richness in the meaning of the word and included cross reference within the dictionary. It seems San Antonio is richer in content than Noceda & San Lucar, or perhaps some of the entries were no longer in use as is normal in any living language.


5. Lamay

El acto de hacer algo de noche. Por la de um para acto de movimiento Por la de mag para accion particular. Linalamay: ir por el de noche. Pinaglalamayan: hacer algo de noche.




Velar, hacer algo de noche In, por loque, mag Velar hacienda algo. Loque, Pinaglalayan Lamay pa, cuanto ha. Lamay na di lamay, de muy lejos. Ano mo si Juan? Que parentesco tienes con Juan? R. Lamay na di lamay, este muy lejos de mi.

The same single entry, but the additional idiomatic expression in Noceda & San Lucar indicates the richness and depth of the language and the high level of proficiency in the language gained by the friars.

.


7. Lirip

pp. El acto de zabullierse (l. zambullirse debajo del agua, buscando algo, como el buzo. *metaforica: Dili co malirip-lirip ang cahologan nang uica niya: cuendo no puede entenderla (Vide: Sisir)




Buscar algo zambullendose debajo del agua, o sambullinerse, Vm. Donde, An. Loque busca, In. Sondar el agua, In. Y de aqui Di co malirip ang uica, no entiende lo que dices. Ang tubig mo, I, malalim, malilirip cun lipdin itong budhing magaling maliuag paghanapin.

Almost similar entries by the two authors. The major contribution of Noceda & San Lucar in this entry is the inclusion of folk sayings in poetic form mirroring the richness of the Tagalog culture (e.g., comparing the clear water with honor and clear conscience.

8. Magcano

Magcano–1, pp. Que tanto, 1. Cuanto. Adverbio. Minamagcano?: en cuanto se aprecia? Para preguntar la grandeza de las vasijas que denotan por el numero de gantas, preguntan con esta: Magcano?, postpuesta “-an”. Magcanohan itong banga, 1. Itong gusi? Responde: Tonggal, 1. Suboc salop: una ganta. Dalauahang salop. Tatlohan. Pouoan: Diez. Labihan dalaua: doce.
Magcano-2. pp. Para preguntar el precio, es tambien por la dicha composicion.

Magcanohan itong alac?: como se vende? Responde: Tonggal: una ganta, un toston. Dalauahan ang isang salapi: dos por un toston. Apatan pouoan ang salapi. Tambien, dicen: Magcanong pagbibili mo nitong cayo?: a como lo vendes? Responde: Tatlong salapi.
Magcano-3. pp. Tambien preguntan: Magcanong pagbibilihan, 1. Magcanong bilihan dito sa bayan nang palay?: a como se vende? Responde: Labin dalaua. Labin tatlo ang salapi. Para preguntar: cuantos dias cada uno. Magcanohang arau camo nang paggaua ninyo? Maghaponan cami.: cada uno un dia. Maghanggan tanghalian,

. magdalauang arau, maglinggohan cada uno un dia, o medio, o una semana. Lo mismo por “macailan”. Magmacailan ang arau camong gumaua nang sanglinggo? Responde: Magmacalouahan cami, etc. Cquinaaauaan nang di sasang-magcanong yaman. Entiendese que se aprovecha della luego. Empero: nang di mamagcanong {sasang anong} yaman, aunque se la dio, no ha recibido aun el provecho, como cuando dan una encomienda. Y notese, que cuando dice: Nang di sasang magcano: habla de cosa vista, empero, nang di mamagcano: de oidas.

pp. Cuanto, que tanto. Nagmagcacano, en cuanto esta apreciado. Minapagcano, en cuanto se aprecia. Mamagcanohin mo caya ito, por mas que sea tal, v. g. feo, bueno o malo, etc. Magcanohan, de cuantas gantas es esta medida, o a como se vende este vino.

More than the meaning itself, Noceda & San Lucar included the literary meaning of the entry (e.g., judging or evaluating a person).

9. Palay

Palay-1. pp. Todo genero de arroz scuio. Nagpapalay: tartar en el. Tambien dicen: Nagpapalay: pagar el tribute en arroz. Nagpapapalay: el que la cobra. Macabuhay alila: Ilaman al arroz, que aunque no esta del todo maduro, se puede comer. Ipinagcaca-palay: lo que es causa de tener arroz. Ang pinagcapalayan ni Pedro ay yaong lupang yaon: no es causa, sino la tierra en que lo cogio o hubo. Y tambien, lo que saca en cantidad. Ang pinagca-palayan niong isang mandala ay sanglibo: lo que saco es mil. Y a este modo: Ang pinagca-alacan niong limang tapayang tuba, dalauang tapayan. Ang pinagcasalapian niong ilang pitacang cayo ay sanglibo. De manera, que esto mira siempre el “bilang”. Empero: ang napalay co sa hasic co, ay dalauang daan: mira a la tierra, de donde le cogio. Y de aqui: Himalay: entresacar las espigas que esta de sazon, o lo que sobra, despues de haber cogido que es la rebusca.
Palay-2. pp. Pesa: Palay porque son 9 sangpalay, 1. capalay, un grano de oro; y tres granos hacen una Saga. Vide: bahay-2
Palayan. pp. La sementera de regadio. Nagpapalayan: hacer.

esperanzas.



pp. Arroz en cascara. Mag, venderlo, pagar algo con el. Magpa cobrar el tribute en el. Magca, tener mucho arroz. La causa, Ipinagcaca, l. Pinagcacapalayan, Mapalay, el que tiene mucho. Capalayan, pc Un solo grano. Ang pinagcacapalayan nitong mandala, lo que rendira, etc. Ang napalay co sa hasic co lo que saque de lo que sembre, etc. Himalay rebuscar. Nag, l. Nan Lo que, pinag. L. Pinan Endonde, pinag-an, l. Pinan-an Palayan la sementera. Napalayar na, naisipan na. activo. Nagpalay metafora


As in the previous entries, Noceda & San Lucar had simplified the meaning and use of the word, as well as collapsing entries that were separated by San Antonio. However, some were missing like the use of palay as a standard unit of measure in the amount of gold, or perhaps there are new units or technology introduced by the colonizers in these period.

This shows the inventiveness and creativity of our forefathers which is a good material for cultural studies and an example of extant units of measure. Cross references were also included.



10. Singa

Sonamiento de mocos.



Suminga ca. Sonarse.

Magpasinga: a otro.

Pasingahi


Pc. Reñir marido, y mujer, y los amigos; pero sin odio. Nagsinga silang magasaua. Acaso reñimos, onos enfadamos. Anong ipinagca singa ninyo? Que fue la causa del enfado?

Noceda & San Lucar included more meanings such as showing displeasure with the act of doing it.


11.. Socqi

Los cuadros de la casa, como los del claustro. Tambien, los puntales, que se ponen pos debajo de la casa.

Y metaporica: Maraming socqi ang loob niya.


Suque, 1. Suqui. Pp. El comprador, y vendedor que se compran y se venden frecuentemente sus mercancias, se llaman mutuamente. Suque Parece ser de origen chinico este termino. Lo que en España se llama parroquiano.

pp. Puntalesque ponen cruzados, como aspas de bajo de las casas. Naquiquibo, at ualang mañga suqui yaring bahay. Esta casa se menos, porque no tiene puntales.

pp. Apuntalar


The spelling of the entries are different although they provided the same meaning.

San Antonio’s meaning has more depth although Noceda & San Lucar gave 3 meanings.


The origin of the word was also given (from the Chinese).

From the foregoing, it is clear that the Philippine languages are highly intellectualized. The efforts of Spanish friars to unravel meanings of varied Filipino tongues were gloriously documented in these dictionaries.
  1. CONCLUSION and REFLECTION


From the foregoing initial study, the following may be stated:

  1. The tremendous effort and dedication of the Spanish friars who wrote the dictionaries cannot be overemphasized.

  2. The wealth of our culture and wide linguistic diversity as documented in the dictionaries during the Spanish period indicate that our languages are intellectualized. Otherwise, the dictionaries would not be written at all. A study on these dictionaries is quite important to promote our people’s identity and self-esteem. Our forefathers are indeed inventive, creative and resourceful as reflected in the dictionaries.

  3. The language policy is problematic even in the early years of the Spanish regime. It is fortunate that the friars stick to the languages of the locals as medium of instruction in the faith. Aside from preventing the death of our languages, this may be one of the reasons for the general deep religiosity of the Filipinos. This clearly shows the power of using the mother tongue as language of instruction.


  1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


Many thanks for the valuable comments and suggestions of Dr. Virgilio S. Almario and Reynaldo Candido in the conduct this study.
  1. REFERENCES


  1. Hidaldo, C. 1977. Philippine lexicography from 1521 to the present (1977). Quezon City: NRCP-UP.

  2. Landau, S. I. 1991. Dictionaries – The arts and craft of lexicography. Cambridge: University Press.

  3. Medina, I.R., 1972. Filipiniana materials in the National Library. National Library and UP Press.

  4. Noceda de, J. & San Lucar de, P. 1860 ed. Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala. books.Google.com – (free download).

  5. Pila Historical Foundation, Inc. 2009. Draft Copy. The vocabulario de lengua Tagala by Pedro San Buenaventura – Historic and linguistic value of an important Spanish-Filipino incunabulum.

  6. Rubrico, J.G.U. 1998. Katayuan at ambag ng linggwistiks sa Pilipinas (1898-1998). Language Links.

  7. San Antonio, F. (+ 1624). 2000. Vocabulario Tagalo. Pulong-Sources for Philippine Studies. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University.




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