Global Warming how to help slow it down

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Global Warming how to help slow it down

  • Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol
  • Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Events)
  • UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)
  • UPRM Campus Verde 2009
  • This presentation can be found at:
  • ______________________________
  • Materials for Teachers:
  • *Please give proper credit.

Documentales recomendados:

  • The Story of Stuff : 20 mins, free @
  • Too Hot not to Handle: 50min
  • Who Killed the Electric Car?-
  • An Inconvenient Truth-
  • Renewable Energy
  • Human Footprint- National Geographic, YouTube
  • Home, available on the web (1.5 hrs)

Global warming. . .

  • Is not a Theory; is a Fact.*
  • Is happening right now*
  • Scientific consensus: is caused mainly beause of human activity, like emissions of CO2.*
  • Some of its consequences are irreversibles!*
  • * According to the most recent report of the UN-IPCC 4th 2007.

Coasts of Puerto Rico

  • If we continue with business as usual

Human Activities

  • For example:
  • CO2 emissions to the atmosphere: cars, electricity, water
  • Deforestation – construction
  • Contamination
  • other emitted gases like Methane, NOx

Global Warming

Lake Chad

  • Was the 6th largest lake in the World!
  • A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago.
  • W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s.
  • We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africa’s 3%.

The Ethical Dimension of Climate Change

  • "If sea levels rise at the rates they are predicting, we may see hundreds of millions of refugees" "Where will they go? Who will take them in?
  • What does it mean about immigration regulations?"
  • "The future will be catastrophic for all communities, for all countries, but particularly for those who have already been identified as particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change," Specially small island states which might disappear entirely under the rising ocean. "It is a moral obligation, beyond political obligation or economic obligation, to help countries like Tuvalu and small island developing states, and of course the least developed countries,"
  • "We have to do something urgently."

Social impacts

  • Sub-Saharan Africa produces about 3% of the world’s greenhouse gases, yet…
  • Its climate and ecological systems have already been altered by global warming and will undergo further damage in the years ahead.
  • Demonstrators in Nairobi, Kenya, protest failure of developed countries to curb emissions of greenhouse gases.
  • A 2006 report by economist Sir Nicholas Stern suggests that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!

CO2 in the atmosphere Years: 1960-2000

  • CO2 in Atmosphere
  • Years: 1000 -2100
  • ICE AGE, T was only 6oC

Global average temperature Years: 1860-2000

  • Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain
  • Clean Air Act
  • }
  • Several scenarios
  • En estas gráficas se compara los modelos naturales y antropogénicos con las medidas reales.


Adverse Consequences of global warming:

  • Polar caps melt
    • Sea level rise
  • Extreme temperatures
  • Cyclones/tornadoes
  • Drought / floods
  • Disease
  • Agriculture losses
  • Water (potable) scarcity
  • Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation
  • Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt

Worst Case Scenario: abrupt change IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

  • Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.
  • Worst case scenario:
  • Ocean conveyor belt stops
  • Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America. [IPCC]

Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa)

  • 30 years later…

Patagonia (Argentina) Longest Glacier in S.A.

  • 1928
  • 2004

Costa Rica

  • First official lost species due to Global warming:
  • golden toad
  • Female Male
  • Not so PERMAfrost…
  • Rincón
  • Puerto Rico
  • antes
  • antes
  • antes
  • Créditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas
  • después
  • Rincón
  • Créditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas
  • Luquillo
  • Créditos: Prof. Aurelio Mercado, Ciencias Marinas

Icebergs with caves = broken food chain

  • 60% of krill population killed because of this.
  • Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species

Asuntos Políticos

  • Oil Industry : lobbyist
  • Gobiernos alterando evidencia científica
    • (e.g. NASA climatólogo, Jim Hansen)
  • Costo real de energía Nuclear
    • versus costo de energía limpia como solar o viento
    • Riesgos de salud, desperdicios radioactivos
  • Carro Eléctrico tecnología desde 1995, destruido en 2003.

On top of this…

  • New blooming economies want to live their own version of the “American Dream”.
  • Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.
  • It took all human history to reach 1 billion in 1800.
  • World Population Growth
  • 2000
  • 1987
  • 1975
  • 1960
  • 1930
  • 1800
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 0
  • 10,000 BC 5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000
  • billions

The Good News is that…

  • we can make
  • a difference …
  • While saving $$$

Ahorra $$$, …Salva el planeta

  • Everytime we use:
  • electricy
  • gasoline
  • products
  • water
  • We send emissions to the atmosphere that warms it more.


  • Puerto Rico
  • Dry Season
  • Puerto Rico
  • Wet Season
  • In PR global warming is expected to decrease rain by 10-20%!


  • When we save water, we save $ and CO2 emissions
  • Buy shower head of 1.6gpm

Paper use

  • Print on both sides, minimize color.
  • Use recycle paper, 100% post-consumer
  • Cancel Catalogs
  • Subscribe to online magazines, Pay online
  • Avoid millions of tree from being chop down


  • Plant trees
    • Lower your home temperature up to 10F!,
    • Increase value of your property!
    • Reduce CO2 emissions
    • *El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!
  • Small changes, make a big difference:


Buy Less!

  • Consumerism is affecting the environment immensely. Save Money!
  • Products generate emissions when manufactured.
    • Generate trash, toxics.
    • Many can’t be recycled
    • Are designed to last little to make you buy more.
  • If DEMAND goes down, PRODUCTIÓN goes down
  • This is why REDUCE is sooo important.

Rechargable Batteries (4 AA + 4 AAA)

  • Saves $100+ for each one!
  • *
  • *Las recargables de pueden usar entre 100 a 1000 veces dependiendo del tipo, y cuesta sólo par de centavos recargarlas. Nunca eches ningún tipo de batería al zafacón, tienen muchos tóxicos que dañan el ambiente. Recíclalas en OfficeMax, RUM, y otros centros de acopio.

Don’t throw batteries in the trash!

  • They contain many toxics, heavy metals like mercury that poison our water, when it rains on the landfills.
  • Recycle them.
  • Use rechargable batteries. Save $100 on EACH!.
  • Busca la lista de centros de acopio de baterías en


  • Generate many toxic gases & CO2 during their production.
  • Are NOT biodegradable, are prohibited in many cities in the U.S.

Styrofoam cuesta $$$…

  • Avoid using disposable dinnerware (Styrofoam® , Plásticos o Papel)
    • *Vajilla = $7k=10k monthly savings @RUM Cafeteria.

Eat less Meat

  • Methane gas is 20x stronger than CO2
  • Could be captured and used as fuel.
  • Landfields produce it.
  • Cattle farms produce it.

According to a 2006 study by U. of Chicago;

  • According to a 2006 study by U. of Chicago;
  • Eating a vegan diet prevents the equivalent of 1.5 tons of CO2 emissions every year, more than the 1 ton of CO2 emissions prevented by switching from a typical large sedan to a Toyota Prius.
  • So why does meat cause so much global warming?
  • Growing feed for farmed animals requires intense use of synthetic fertilizer, which releases N2O– a far stronger greenhouse gas than even CO2 .
  • The tens of billions of farmed animals of the world produce massive amounts of flatulence and liquid manure, which release large amounts of methane into the atmosphere as well as forming nitrous oxide, both of which are powerful green house gases.
  • Heating buildings that house farm animals – emission of green house gases
  • "Rearing Cattle Produces More Greenhouse Gases Than Driving Cars, UN Report Warns," UN News Centre, 29 Nov. 2006.
  • “…raising animals for food generates more greenhouse gases than all the cars and trucks in the world combined”. 2006 U.N. report

The Water link…

  • To produce 1 lb of MEAT
    • You need 1,000-12,000 lbs of Water!
  • To produce 1 lb of potatoes, wheat, corn and rice
  • According to a 2006 study by U. Chicago;
  • Changing to vegetarian saves more emisions (1.5 tons CO2 annual)
  • Than changing from a large car to a Toyota Prius! (ahorro 1 ton de CO2 anual)

Recycla, Reuse , Reduce:

  • cardboard
  • Plastic
  • Aluminum cans
  • Glass
  • Bateries
  • Water
  • Cooking oil
  • leaves
  • Methane
  • MBytes
  • Centro de reciclaje en Cabo Rojo:
  • WR Recycling Inc.
  • Carr103 Km 2.3 Bajura Cabo Rojo
  • 538-1486, 255-4772
  • Compra Aluminio, vidrio y cartón
  • No acepta plásticos.
  • Oil Energy 832-5757
  • Recicla aceite usado
  • Ponce Resources en Mayaguez
  • 824-3503
  • CC Reciclaje del Norte, Hatillo
  • Carr2 Km 88.1, 262-0305

What should I buy?

  • Reduced packaging
  • Concentrated Products
  • *All packages need large amounts of energy to be produces, and many emit tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually.
  • X3 x1


  • Recycle leaves, and other waste
  • It’s better for your health and the environment.
  • Organic food (better health, less Br)

What should I buy?

  • A fiberglass pool employs 1/3 of the energy than a concrete pool.

Save Mbytes!

  • Saves materials & energy
  • OR> Right-click on figure, press Format Figure, Compress , All, or change with Paste Special to Jpeg or gif Format. Save a lot of space on your USB memory sticks! Up to 20x!!
  • How? Cut each Picture, then Paste Special in JPG or GIF Format.


Increase your MPG [MPG = miles per gallon]

  • Don’t press gas pedar too much.
  • Learn to drive at optimum accelaration.
  • optimum
  • MPG
  • Car Accelaration
  • Pression on pedal
  • smaller MPG

Improve your MPG

  • Use minimum acceleration
  • Drive less, combine trips
  • Don’t leave your car on > 1min
  • Remove excess loads
  • Park on the shade
  • Tune-up your car & keep tires inflated
  • Consider a hybrid car
  • Turn off A/C when driving uphill & in good weather
  • Avoid holes
  • Use Overdrive
  • *
  • Every gallon saves 20 pounds of CO2 emissions!
  • Optimum Speed

What’s the optimum speed?

  • Respect speed limits and save $
  • Velocidad óptima
  • 55

Hybrids Cars

  • Save $6,000 in 5 years*
  • Takes into account initial costs and gas cost at $0.65 per gasoline liter.


  • DMSP
  • Puerto Rico used 3 times more electricity per person than in Spain! Yet, quality of life is not better.
  • Electric appliances use electricity even when turned off.
  • They’re called Phamton Loads!
  • Some examples
  • Sum of the phantom loads is 55W, which is 40 kWh/mo!
  • Save $5 - $50 a month when: unplug appliances when not using them.
  • Use a power strip to connect several appliances then you can turn them off all at the same time.

Turn off printer & speakers when not in use.

  • Turn off printer & speakers when not in use.
  • Unplugged them every night.


  • Turn off PC if you will not use it in 1hr or more.
  • ¡Don’t let the adaptor plugged in!!!

Cellphone chargers

  • Don’t leave the charger connected!
  • Uses 70-95% of the energy as if charging.

Inside of an adapter

  • Myth vs. Reality: turning on and off appliances, damages them.
  • FALSE! That was 2 decades ago. Unplug and save!

What should I buy?

  • a laptop uses 1/3 of the electricity of a desktop!
  • versus
  • And it doesn’t need a UPS.

What should I buy?

  • LCD uses 1/3 less energy than a Plasma TV!
  • LCD
  • Plasma

Compact fluorescent Lights (CFL)



  • If you use air conditioner, set the temperature 1-2 degrees less cold, this will save $ and many emissions.
  • A window fan
  • brings in fresh air from
  • outside.
  • Save $25 /month
  • for each A/C unit!

What should I buy?

  • It’s worth buy appliances that are energy efficient.
  • ¡Compare!
  • Saves
  • $10-60/ mo. each!!

What should I buy?

  • A solar water heater
  • Saves $40-$100/mo.
  • Lasts 30+ years!

What should I buy?

  • GAS appliances save $25-$50/month!
  • Using a clothlines, saves even more.

Electric Bill: AEE…(house of 4)

  • Average Consumption:
  • $260
  • 1390 kWh

Electric Bill: :

  • After eliminationg Electric phamtons & changing some CFL
  • $195
  • (1160 kWh)

Electric Bill:

  • $113
  • (690 kWh)
  • After using 3 fans instead of 3 A/C

Factura de AEE:

  • After installing a solar water heater
  • $74
  • (400 kWh)
  • Electric Bill:

Every day solutions

Living Green

  • haz la diferencia
  • deja tu huella
  • is about changing our patterns of consumption and seeking out greener, natural and ethical alternatives to every conceivable type of product and service.
  • It’s about buying more wisely, consuming less, wasting less, thinking through the consequences of our purchases.
  • It’s about reducing our impact on the planet and our fellows by making choices that are better for us, better for the environment, and better for other people.
  • It doesn’t preach, but it does show that there is a way forward to one-planet, sustainable living, a means to combat climate change and a way to protect the world’s scarce resources.

Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere

It’s our moral responsability…

  • Let’s use its resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it.
  • We only have ONE planet.
  • Don’t eat pesticides!
  • eat organic
  • …nor herbicides, fertilizers chemicals or insecticides.
  • These chemicals damage the ozone layer and emit GHG.

¿Por qué Orgánico?

  • Son productos sembrados sin fertilizantes químicos, plaguicidas, herbicidas ni insecticidas.
    • Sólo composta e insecticidas naturales.
  • Los pesticidas artificiales contienen Bromuro:
    • el cual daña la capa de ozono y empeora el Calentamiento Global.
  • Los fertilizantes artificiales contienen Nitrógeno:
    • el cual es un gas de invernadero y empeora el Calentamiento Global.

Cleaning Products

  • Usa productos de limpieza que no dañen el entorno natural.
  • Evita usar cloro, y otros productos que dañan el ambiente y a la larga nos envenenan nuestra salud y el entorno natural (fauna, flora, cuerpos de agua), causando asma, y otras enfermedades.
  • Ahorras$$ usando: vinagre, polvo de soda, borax, limón para limpiar.

Avoid plastic or paper bags!

  • Plastic bags are made out of petroleum, & take over 100 yrs to biodegrade.  Were banned in Uganda, China & Irlanda.
  • China will save 37 millions barrils of oil every year.
  • Paper bags foment desforestation
  • Less than 1% are recycled
  • Damage wildlife.

Usa bolsas re-usables

  • Las bolsas plásticas están hechas de petróleo, y tardan más de 100 años en biodegradarse. Las prohibieron en Uganda, China e Irlanda.
  • En China se ahorrarán anualmente 37 millones de barriles de petróleo debido a la prohibición de las bolsas plásticas.
  • En algunas tiendas si usas su bolsa de tela te devuelven dinero.
  • (ej. Vitamin World te devuelve $1 cada vez que usas su bolsa de canvas en compras de $10 o más).
  • Anualmente, miles de tortugas, anguilas y otros animales mueren debido a que se comen las bolsas plásticas y vasos plásticos creyendo que son agua viva.
  • DRY Cleaning
  • SayNO to:
  • Utiliza muchos químicos (percloroetileno) que dañan el sistema nervioso, afectando al trabajador de la lavandería y a tu salud. Además contaminan el ambiente.
  • Se ha relacionado a incidencia de cáncer
  • Anti-bacterial
  • SayNO to:
  • Contribuye a que las bacterias creen resistencia a antibióticos (“super bugs”)
  • Antibacterial soaps are helping to promote growth of resistant bacteria, according to a 2000 World Health Organization report.
  • Desechable
  • Dile NO a lo:
  • Aumenta los desperdicios en el vertedero, por lo tanto a más gas metano!
  • El metano atrapa 20 veces más calor en la atmósfera que el CO2
  • NO sorbetos
  • NO vasos
  • Sólo plástico #1 y #2

We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors. We borrow it from our children. - Native-american Proverb

Book References:

  • The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs
  • Weather Makers by Tim Flannery
  • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
  • The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman
  • Global Warming by Chris Spence
  • Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer
  • Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank
  • Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern

Web References…

  • FUN!! (PC games)

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