Everything You Always Wanted To Know About



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Everything
You
Always
Wanted
To
Know
About
Spanish II . . . .
And
So
Much
More!

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Table of Contents


Body Parts .................................................................................................. 3

Ordinal Numbers ....................................................................................... 3

Possessive Adjectives ................................................................................ 4

Pronouns


Direct Object.................................................................................. 5

Indirect Object................................................................................ 6

Question Words.......................................................................................... 7

Verbs, Present tense

Yo –go verbs.................................................................................... 8 /9

Idioms 10

IR and IR A....................................................................................... 10

SABER vs CONOCER...................................................................... 11

SER vs ESTAR................................................................................. 12

Stem-changing: e>ie and o>ue...................................................... 13

TENER and TENER QUE.................................................................. 14

Third person.................................................................................... 15

Verbs, Present Progressive......................................................................... 15 /16

Verbs, Preterite tense

Regular verbs.................................................................................. 16/17

-GAR, -CAR, -ZAR verbs................................................................... 17/18

DAR and VER................................................................................... 18

SER and IR....................................................................................... 18 Reflexive verbs ………………………………………………………………………….. 19

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Body Parts
Las Partes del cuerpo
Los ojos – the eyes la cabeza – the head los dedos – the fingers
La boca – the mouth la espalda – the back el codo – the elbow
La lengua – the tongue los dientes – the teeth la rodilla – the knee
Las orejas – the ears los pies – the feet el tobillo – the ankle
La nariz – the nose el brazo – the arm los dedos – the toes
La garganta – the throat la mano – the hand el pie – the foot
El corazón – the heart la pierna – the leg la muñeca – the wrist

* Always use the articles with the parts of the body. DO NOT use the possessive adjectives with these nouns!!


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Ordinal Numbers
* Ordinal numbers are used to show place value or position

** There are only 10 Ordinal numbers in Spanish.




  • Primero (primer before a singular masculine noun)

  • Segundo

  • Tercero (tercer before a singular masculine nour)

  • Cuarto

  • Quinto

  • Sexto

  • Séptimo

  • Octavo

  • Noveno

  • Décimo

  • Último

*** Ordinal numbers are adjectives. They must agree in gender and number with the noun they describe:



  • El segundo hijo

  • El segunda hija

**** There are two exceptions to this rule:

  • Primero and tercero become ‘primer’ and ‘tercer’ before a masculine, singular noun:

La primera nieta

El primer nieto


***** Ordinal numbers precede the nouns they describe:

  • El segundo piso

  • La tercera hamburguesa

****** Ordinal numbers can be abbreviated just as in English.



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Los Adjectivos posesivos


my – mi (s) our – nuestro (s) / nuestra (s)

your – tu (s) your – vuestro (s) / vuestra (s)


his / her / your – su (s) their / your – su (s)


  • Used to show possession Es mi libro it is my book.

  • Possessive Adjectives precede the noun ¿Estudias tú español? Do you study Spanish?

  • Possessive Adjectives must agree in number Eduardo tiene su libro y sus cuadernos.

with the noun. Eduardo has his book and his notebooks

  • Nuestro and vuestro must agree in number Nuestro papá and está aquí y nuestra mamá está en

and gender with their noun. Casa.

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Direct Object Pronouns


  • A Direct Object [DO] is a word or phrase in a sentence that tells “who” or “what” receives the action of a transitive verb:

I write my homework. Yo escribo mi tarea.

S V DO noun S V DO noun




  • A Direct Object Pronoun replaces the DO noun.

I write it. Yo la escribo.





  • The Direct Object Pronouns are:

Me me us nos


You te you os
Him lo them los

Her la them las


You (ud) lo / la you (uds) los / las

It lo / la





  • There are two rules concerning the placement of Direct Object Pronouns in Spanish:

1. Directly before a conjugated verb or negative command:


Yo la escribo.
No la escribas Ud.
2. Attached to an infinitive, gerund (Participle) or affirmative command:
Yo voy a escribirla.
Yo estoy escribiéndola.
¡Escríbala Ud!
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Indirect Object Pronouns


  • An Indirect Object (IO) is a word or phrase that tells “to/for whom” or “to/for what” receives the Direct Object:

I give her my homework. Yo le doy mi tarea.

S B IO DO S IO V DO


  • The Indirect Object Pronouns are:

To/for me me to/for us nos


To/for you te to/for you os
To/for him le to/for them les

To/for her le to/for them les


To/for you (ud) le to/for you (uds) les

To/for It le




  • There are two rules concerning the placement of Direct Object Pronouns in Spanish:

1. Directly before a conjugated verb or negative command:


Yo le doy la tarea.
No le dés Ud. la tarea.
2. Attached to an infinitive, gerund (Participle) or affirmative command:
Yo voy a darle la tarea.
Yo estoy dándole la tarea.
¡Déle Ud la tarea!


  • In Spanish, when both the Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns are used, the Indirect Object Pronoun precede the Direct Object Pronoun.

I am giving you it (homework). Yo te la doy.

I am giving her it (homework) Yo le la doy. becomes Yo se la doy to prevent the double “L”
allilteration sound.

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Question words

¿Qué? What?

¿de qué? From what?

¿con qué? With what?

¿para qué? For what (purpose)?

¿Quién? (¿Quiénes?) who?

¿a quién? (¿a quiénes?) whom?

¿Cómo? How?

¿Cuál? (¿Cuáles?) which?

¿Dónde? Where?

¿adónde? To where?

¿de dónde? From where?

¿Cuándo? When?

¿Cuánto (a)? how much?

¿Cuántos (as)? How many?

¿Por qué? Why?

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Yo –go verbs
These verbs have various unique spelling changes in their conjugations. But they all have one thing in common – the first person singular form (yo) of the present tense ends in –go.
TENER
Yo tengo nosotros tenemos
Tú tienes vosotros tenéis
Él/ella/ud tiene ellos/ellas/uds tienen

VENIR
Yo vengo nosotros venimos


Tú vienes vosotros venís
Él/ella/ud viene ellos/ellas/uds vienen

PONER
Yo pongo nosotros ponemos


Tú pones vosotros ponéis
Él/ella/ud pone ellos/ellas/uds ponen

SALIR
Yo salgo nosotros salimos


Tú sales vosotros salís
Él/ella/ud sale ellos/ellas/uds salen
HACER
Yo hago nosotros hacen
Tú haces vosotros hacéis
Él/ella/ud hace ellos/ellas/uds hacen

TRAER
Yo traigo nosotros traemos


Tú traes vosotros traéis
Él/ella/ud trae ellos/ellas/uds traen

OÍR
Yo oigo nosotros oímos


Tú oyes vosotros oís
Él/ella/ud oye ellos/ellas/uds oyen

DECIR
Yo digo nosotros decimos


Tú dices vosotros decís
Él/ella/ud dice ellos/ellas/uds dicen

Idioms
Hacer la maleta to pack the suitcase
Hacer un viaje to make (take) a trip
Hacer cola to make a line; to stand in line
Hacer un picnic to go on a picnic
Poner la mesa to set the table
Salir en to leave in (on)
Salir de to leave (from)
Salir para to leave for . .
Venir en to come in (on)

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IR and IR A

Yo voy nosotros vamos


Tú vas vosotros váis
Él/ella/us va ellos/ellas/uds van


Uses for IR and IR A


  • To show motion towards a place

¿Adónde vas?




  • To tell what will happen in the near future

Mañana voy a comer


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SABER vs CONOCER
SABER :

  • To know a fact or information

  • To know how to do something

Yo sé nosotros sabemos

Tú sabes vosotros sabéis

Él/ella/ud sabe ellos/ellas/uds saben


1. Yo sé que pasa en la historieta. I know what happens in the story.

2. José sabe a qúe hora empieza la clase. José knows what time the class starts.

3. Sabemos bailar bien. We know how to dance well.

CONOCER:


  • To know people (to be acquainted with people)

  • To be acquainted with something / someplace

  • To know abstract ideas

Yo conozco nosotros conocemos

Tú conoces vosotros conocéis

Él/ella/ud conoce ellos/ellas/uds conocen


1. Yo conozco a mi profesora. I know my teacher.

2. Elena conoce a la Sra Ramos. Elena knows (is acquainted with) Sra Ramos

3. ¿Conoces los cuadros de Pablo Picasso? Do you know (are you acquanted with / familiar with) the paintings of Pablo Picasso?

4. Conocemos la literatura de los mayas. We know (are familiar with) Mayan literature.

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The uses of SER and ESTAR
SER

Yo soy nosotros somos

Tú eres vosotros sois

Él/ella/ud es ellos/ellas/uds son

ESTAR
Yo estoy nosotros estamos
Tú estás vosotros estáis
Él/ella/ud es ellos/ellas/uds están


Reasons for using each
SER: for the uses of SER, think of the word CNOTE ( a hundred dollar bill):
C characteristics Ana es inteligente. Luís es alto. La casa es verde.

N nationality Raúl es Peruano.

O origin Rosalita es de Chile

T telling time Es la una y veinte. Son las dos y media.

E equivilence (what something is). Mi amigo es médico.

ESTAR: for the uses of ESTAR, think of the phrase True Love Forever, where the first letter of each word indicates a use of ESTAR:


T temporary condition. Ana está enferma.

L location. El libro está en la mesa.

F feelings Luisa está triste.
These two verbs CANNOT be interchanged without changing the meaning of the sentence.
La manzana es verde. The apple is green. (it’s its normal color – like a Granny Smith apple).

La manzana está verde. The apple is green. (it’s not ripe – not ready to eat)

Ana es lista. Ana is clever.

Ana está lista. Ana is ready.

Héctor está loco. Héctor is crazy. (He doesn’t know what he’s talking about)

Héctor es loco. Héctor is crazy. (He need psychological treatment)

Felipe es aburrido. Felipe is boring.

Felipe está aburrido. Felipe is bored.

La chica es rubia. The blonde girl. (the girl is blonde – that is her natural hair color)

La chica está rubia. The blonde girl. (the girl is not naturally blonde – she dyes her hair)


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Stem-changing verbs


  • Some verbs change the vowel in their stem in the Present tense

  • The endings for the verbs do not change!

  • These verbs change in every person except the NOSOTROS and VOSOTROS forms

  • There are 3 kinds of verbs that make this change:

o > ue stem-changers

e > ie stem-changers

e > i stem-changers

o > ue stem-changers

DORMIR
Yo duermo nosotros dormimos


Tú duermes vosotros dormís
Él/ella/ud duerme ellos/ellas/uds duermen

e > ie stem-changers

PERDER
Yo pierdo nosotros perdemos


Tú pierdes vosotros perdéis
Él/ella/ud pierde elloa/ellas/uds pierden

e > i stem-changers

PEDIR
Yo pido nosotros pedimos


Tú pides vosotros pedís
Él/ella/ud pide ellos/ellas/uds piden

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TENER and TENER QUE

TENER
Yo tengo nosotros tenemos


Tú tienes vosotros tenéis
Él/ella/ud tiene ellos/ellas/uds tienen



  • Used to show possession Yo tengo un perro.

  • Used to show age. ¿Cuántos años tiene Luisa?

  • Used to talk about what you have to do. Ana tiene que estudiar.

  • Used in Idiomatic expressions

Tener hambre to be hungry (to have hunger) (tengo much hambre – I am very hungry)

Tener sed to be thirsty

Tener calor to be warm / hot

Tener frío to be cold

Tener sueño to be sleepy

Tener prisa to be in a hurry

Tener razón to be right

Tener cuidado to be careful

Tener suerte to be lucky

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Third person verbs

Aburrir to be boring to / to bore

Interesar to be interesting to / to interest

Gustar to be pleasing to / to like

Encantar to be enchanted with / to love

Doler (o>ue) to be painful to / to hurt




  • These verbs have a real and a translatable meaning

  • These are a special type of verb that are only ever conjugated in the 3rd person (“it” and “they”)

  • The subject follows the verb

  • Indirect Object Pronouns must be used with these verbs

Me to me nos to us

Te to you (familiar) os to you (used in parts of Spain)

Le to him / to her / to you (Ud) les to them / to you (Uds)


EX: I like sports (really means . . . ) Sports are pleasing to me.

Me gustan los deportes


Does music interest you? (really means . . . ) Is music interesting to you?

¿Te interesa la música?

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The Present Progressive tense (El Presente Progresivo)


  • The Present Progressive in Spanish is used to describe what someone is doing right now !!

  • The Pres Prog is formed with ESTAR as the helping verb + the Present Participle (Gerund)

Formation of the Present Participle

-ar verbs
Take the infinitive hablar

Drop the –ar habl

Add –ando hablando
use the correct conjugated form of ESTAR in the Present to show who is doing the action

I am speaking Spanish. Estoy hablando español.

-er verbs
Take the infinitive comer

Drop the j-er com

Add –iendo comiendo
Use the correct conjugated form of ESTAR

We are eating tacos. Estamos comiendo tacos.


-ir verbs
Take the infinitive vivir

Drop the –ir viv

Add -iendo viviendo
Use the correct conjugated form of ESTAR

You are living here. Estás viviendo aquí.


There are some verbs that have an irregular Present Participle. Verbs that in a vowel followed by –er or –ir have irregular participles because in the participle you would have an “i” between 2 vowels. When this occurs, the “i” is changed to “y”.
Leer leyendo

Creer creyendo

Traer trayendo

Oír oyendo


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El Pretérito


  • There are 2 past tenses in Spanish, the Imperfect (el Imperfecto) and the Preterite (el Pretérito)

  • The Preterite is used to describe an action that began and ended at a particular time in the past. Usually one time. Used to describe a single action.

  • Present tense stem-changing verbs DO NOT carry over the spelling changes into the Preterite

Regular –ar verbs in the Preterite


For regular –ar verbs, start with the infinitive hablar

Drop the –ar habl

Add the Preterite endings:
Yo hablé nosotros hablamos

Tú hablaste vosotros hablasteis

Él, ella, Ud habló ellos, ellas, Uds hablaron
***Notice the accents on the 1st and 3rd person singujlar forms. The accents MUST be there, or the meaning changes !!
Regular –er verbs in the Preterite
For regular –er verbs, start with the infinitive comer

Drop the –er com

Add the endings:
Yo comí nosotros comimos

Tú comiste vosotros comisteis

Él, ella, Ud com ellos, ellas, Uds comieron
***Notice the accents again in the 1st and 3rd person singular forms!!

Regular –ir verbs in the Preterite


For regular –ir verbs, start with the infinitive vivir

Drop the –ir viv

Add the same endings as for regular –er verbs:
Yo viví nosotros vivimos

Tú viviste vosotros vivisteis

Él, ella, Ud viv ellos, ellas, Uds vivieron

***Notice the accents again in the 1st and 3rd person singular forms!!

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-gar, -car, -zar verbs in the Preterite


All verbs ending in these classifications form the first person singular (yo) with a spelling change.
-gar verbs
Start with the infinitive llegar

Drop the –ar lleg

Conjugate using the regular Preterite endings for –ar verbs EXCEPT there is a spelling change in the “yo” form. For the “yo” form, change the “G” to “GU” before adding the “E”.
Yo llegué nosotros llegamos

Tú llegaste vosotros llegasteis

Él, ella, Ud llegó ellos, ellas, Uds llegaron

-car verbs


Start with the infinitive buscar

Drop the –ar busc

Conjugate using the regular Preterite endings for –ar verbs EXCEPT there is a spelling change in the “yo” form. For the “yo” form, change the “C” to “QU” before adding the “E”
Yo busque nosotros buscamos

Tú buscaste vosotros buscasteis

Él, ella, Ud buscó ellos, ellas, Uds buscaron
-zar verbs
Start with the infinitive comenzar

Drop the –ar comenz

Conjugate using the regular Preterite endings for –ar verbs EXCEPT there is a spelling change in the “yo” form. For the “yo” form, change the “Z” to “C” before adding the “E”
Yo comen nosotros comenzamos

Tú comenzaste vosotros comenzasteis

Él, ella, Ud comenzó ellos, ellas, Uds comenzaron

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DAR and VER in the Preterite


DAR and VER have irregular forms in the Preterite tense:
DAR VER
Di dimos vi vimos

Diste disteis viste visteis

Dio dieron vio vieron
***There are no written accents marks for DAR or VER in the Preterite.
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SER and IR in the Preterite


SER and IR have the same conjugation in the Preterite tense:
Yo fui nosotros fuimos

Tú fuiste vosotros fuisteis

Él, ella, Ud fue ellos, ellas, Uds fueron
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Reflexive verbs


Verbs are ‘Reflexive’ when they describe an action that someone does to himself. When someone does something to someone/something else, the verb is not Reflexive
I wash the car. “wash” is not reflexive, since I am performing the action on something else,
I wash my hands. In this case, “wash” is reflexive since I am performing the action upon myself.

Some verbs that are commonly used in a reflexive manner as well as non-reflexive include:

Despertar(se) (ie) - to wake up levantar(se) – to get up

Lavar(se) – to wash bañar(se) – to bathe (to take a bath)

Afeitar(se) – to shave poner(se) la ropa – to put on clothing

Mirar(se) – to look at maquillar(se) – to put on makeup

Cepillar(se) – to brush peinar(se) – to comb

Sentar(se) (ie) – to sit down (to seat) desayunar(se) – to eat breakfast

Acostar(se) (ue) – to go to bed llamar(se) – to call oneself

Diverter(se) (ie) – to enjoy oneself; to have a good time; to have fun

Vestir(se) (i,i) – to dress

Some verbs will change meaning slightly when used in a reflexive manner:

Dormir (ue) – to sleep dormir(se) – to fall asleep

Hablar – to talk; to speak hablar(se) – to talk with (each other)


To show that a verb is used reflexively, place the appropriate Reflexive Pronoun in front of the verb, which is conjugated in the normal manner:
ME NOS

TE OS


SE SE
Yo despierto a mi hermano a las cinco. I wake (up) my brother at five o’clock.

Yo me despierto a las cinco. I wake up (myself) at five o’clock.


Mi madre se viste temprano. My mother dresses (gets dressed) early.

Mi madre viste a mi Hermana temprano. My mother dresses my sister early.







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