Efecto del Tempo y Modo musical en Arousal (activación), cambios de humor y habilidades espaciales



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Efecto del Tempo y Modo musical en Arousal (activación), cambios de humor y habilidades espaciales

Effects of Musical Tempo and Mode on Arousal, Mood, and Spatial Abilities

Gabriela Husain, William Forde Thompson, E. Glenn Schellenberg

Resumen:

Se examinaron los efectos del tempo y del modo en las habilidades espaciales, activación (arousal) y el humor. Una sonata de Mozart fue tocada por un pianista habilidoso y se grabó un archivo MIDI.

El archivo fue editado para producir 4 versiones de variación en tiempo (rápido y lento) y modo (mayor y menor). Los participantes escucharon una simple versión y completaron mediciones de habilidades espaciales, activación (arousal) y estados de ánimo.

Los rendimientos de habilidades espaciales fueron superiores luego de escuchar la música a un tiempo rápido en comparación con un tiempo lento, y cuando la música fue presentada en escala mayor más que en escala menor.

Las manipulaciones de tiempo afectaron la arousal (activación) pero no el estado de humor, mientras que la manipulación en el modo afecto más el estado de humor pero no el arousal (activación).

Cambios en el arousal y estado de humor fueron paralelos al cambio en las actividades espaciales. Estos descubrimientos son consistentes con el punto de vista de que el “efecto Mozart” es una consecuencia de cambios en el arousal y estados de ánimo.

The Influence of Positive Affect on Decision-Making Strategy

Alice M. Isen1, Barbara Means1

Additional Information

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of a positive feeling state on the decision-making process involved in choosing one alternative from among a group of items. Subjects were asked to select one of six fictitious cars, differing along several dimensions, for purchase. Persons who had been made to feel good by receiving feedback that they had succeeded on a prior task of perceptual-motor skills chose the same alternatives as did control subjects, but made their decisions more quickly. Positive-affect subjects were less likely than were control subjects to review information they had already looked at, and were more likely to ignore information considered unimportant. Analysis of subjects' protocols indicates that the groups differed in the strategies they used for reaching decisions. The positive-affect subjects were likely to use the strategy of “elimination by aspects” (eliminating from further consideration alternatives that did not meet a criterion on a selected important dimension). The effect of positive affect upon decision making in this task is interpreted as an increase in efficiency.

Este estudio investigo la influencia de sentirse positive y el proceso de toma de decisiones relacionada en elegir una alternativa entre un grupo de items. Las personas fueron pedidas que seleccionen uno de seis autos de ficción, difiriendo en las dimensiones, para que realicen la compra. Las personas que se habían sentido bien de recibir un feedback de que habían tenido éxito en una tarea anterior de habilidades motoras de percepción, eligieron las mismas alternativas que el grupo de control eligió, pero tomaron sus decisiones de forma más rápida. Las personas con afecto positivo fueron menos probables que los sujetos de control a revisar la información que ya se habían fijado y fueron más propensos a ignorar información no relevante. El análisis de los protocolos índico que los grupos difirieron en la estrategia utilizada para llegar a sus decisiones. Los sujetos con afecto positivo fueron mas propensos a usar la estrategia de “eliminación por aspectos” (eliminación desde una no consideración de mas alternativas que no alcanzarán los criterios para la dimensión más importante seleccionada). El efecto de afaecto positivo sobre la toma de decisiones en la tarea examinada es interpretado como un incremento en la eficiencia.



Effects of caffeine on human behavior.



Smith A1.

Author information

Abstract


The literature suggests that the following effects on behavior of adult humans may occur when individuals consume moderate amounts of caffeine. (1) Caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. This may be especially important in low arousal situations (e.g. working at night). (2) Caffeine improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that require sustained response. Again, these effects are often clearest when alertness is reduced, although there is evidence that benefits may still occur when the person is unimpaired. (3) Effects on more complex tasks are difficult to assess and probably involve interactions between the caffeine and other variables which increase alertness (e.g. personality and time of day). (4) In contrast to the effects of caffeine consumption, withdrawal of caffeine has few effects on performance. There is often an increase in negative mood following withdrawal of caffeine, but such effects may largely reflect the expectancies of the volunteers and the failure to conduct "blind" studies. (5) Regular caffeine usage appears to be beneficial, with higher users having better mental functioning. (6) Most people are very good at controlling their caffeine consumption to maximise the above positive effects. For example, the pattern of consumption over the day shows that caffeine is often consumed to increase alertness. Indeed, many people do not consume much caffeine later in the day since it is important not to be alert when one goes to sleep. In contrast to effects found from normal caffeine intake, there are reports that have demonstrated negative effects when very large amounts are given or sensitive groups (e.g. patients with anxiety disorders) were studied. In this context caffeine has been shown to increase anxiety and impair sleep. There is also some evidence that fine motor control may be impaired as a function of the increase in anxiety. Overall, the global picture that emerges depends on whether one focuses on effects that are likely to be present when caffeine is consumed in moderation by the majority of the population or on the effects found in extreme conditions. The evidence clearly shows that levels of caffeine consumed by most people have largely positive effects on behavior. Excessive consumption can lead to problems, especially in sensitive individuals.

Maternal Singing Modulates Infant Arousal


We examined the effect of maternal singing on the arousal levels of healthy, non-distressed infants. Mothers sang to their 6-month-old infants for 10 minutes, after which they continued interacting for another 10 minutes. To estimate infant arousal, we gathered saliva samples from infants immediately before the mothers began singing and 20 minutes later. Laboratory analyses of the saliva samples revealed that salivary cortisol levels converged from baseline to post-test periods. Specifically, infants with lower baseline levels exhibited modest cortisol increases in response to maternal singing; those with higher baseline levels exhibited modest reductions. This convergence of arousal levels was confirmed by reduced variability in cortisol values from baseline to post-test. These findings are consistent with the view that maternal singing modulates the arousal of prelinguistic infants.

El cortisol (hidrocortisona) es una hormona esteroidea, o glucocorticoide, producida por la glándula suprarrenal.1 Se libera como respuesta al estrés y a un nivel bajo de glucocorticoides en la sangre. Sus funciones principales son incrementar el nivel de azúcar en la sangre a través de la gluconeogénesis, suprimir el sistema inmunológico y ayudar al metabolismo de grasas, proteínas y carbohidratos.2 Además, disminuye la formación ósea. Varias formas sintéticas de cortisol se usan para tratar una gran variedad de enfermedades diferentes.



En el ser humano, estudios cinéticos de la conversión del colesterol libre del plasma en cortisol han demostrado que, en esencia, todo el cortisol secretado deriva del colesterol circulante en condiciones basales y como resultado de la estimulación aguda con adrenocorticotropina (ACTH).

Decoding Speech Prosody: Do Music Lessons Help? William Forde Thompson, E. Glenn Schellenberg, and Gabriela Husain University of Toronto at Mississauga

Three experiments revealed that music lessons promote sensitivity to emotions conveyed by speech prosody. After hearing semantically neutral utterances spoken with emotional (i.e., happy, sad, fearful, or angry) prosody, or tone sequences that mimicked the utterances’ prosody, participants identified the emotion conveyed. In Experiment 1 (n 20), musically trained adults performed better than untrained adults. In Experiment 2 (n 56), musically trained adults outperformed untrained adults at identifying sadness, fear, or neutral emotion. In Experiment 3 (n 43), 6-year-olds were tested after being randomly assigned to 1 year of keyboard, vocal, drama, or no lessons. The keyboard group performed equivalently to the drama group and better than the no-lessons group at identifying anger or fear.


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