Descubrimiento, entrega de información y gestión: Tendencias Actuales de las Nuevas Tecnologías de las Bibliotecas



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Descubrimiento, entrega de información y gestión:

Tendencias Actuales de las Nuevas Tecnologías de las Bibliotecas


27 August 2014

InnovaTics

Marshall Breeding

Independent Consultant, Author,



Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding

Abstract

  • Explore the realm of index-based discovery services oriented more to academic libraries, including Ex Libris Primo, ProQuest Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service, and OCLC WorldCat Discovery Service.
  • An update on the Open Discovery Initiative and the recent movement toward more participation by content providers.
  • Discuss technologies better suited for public libraries that have more concerns for customer engagement, access to print and electronic books, with less stringent requirements for article-level discovery of scholarly resources.
  • The role of open source discovery interfaces such as VuFind and Blacklight.
  • The status of the new generation of library services platforms.
  • The presentation will provide highlights of global library automation industry, with a focus on the players and trends in Latin America
  • Based on “Library Systems Report 2014”

Una perspectiva internacional

  • La forma en la que las bibliotecas desarrollan e implementan sus estrategias tecnológicas dependerá de su situación económica y del acceso a los recursos relacionados, incluyendo la red y la infraestructura informática, Internet de banda ancha, y el nivel de interés y la capacidad de sus usuarios para aprovechar los servicios informáticos y basadas en Web, así como otros factores. (InnovaTICs 2011)
  • How libraries develop and implement their technology strategies must be informed by their economic situation and their access to related resources, including network and computing infrastructure, Internet bandwidth, and the level of interest and ability for their users to take advantage of computer and Web-based services and many other factors.

Global perspective

  • Libraries all over the world share much in common in the services they provide to their communities
  • Values to provide high-quality content resources
  • Each global region has its own unique character
  • Available resources vary
  • Technology must be sensitive to those differences

Library Technology Guides


librarytechnology.org

Recursos en “Library Technology Guides”

  • Noticias de actualidad sobre la biblioteca orientada a tecnologías, productos, y las organizaciones
  • “GuidePosts” Blog de ​​Marshall
  • “libraries.org”: directorio internacional de bibliotecas y de las tecnologías que utilizan
  • El texto completo de muchos artículos relacionados con la tecnología de la biblioteca
    • Incluyendo artículos de Marshall, informes y presentaciones
  • Directorio de organizaciones que ofrecen productos para la automatización de la biblioteca
  • Servicios de notificación: Web, e-mail, RSS, Twitter

Chile

Mergers and Acquisitions


http://librarytechnology.org/mergers

Library Technology Industry Reports

  • 2014: Strategic Competition and Cooperation
  • 2013: Rush to Innovate
  • 2012: Agents of Change
  • 2011: New Frontier
  • 2010: New Models, Core Systems
  • 2009: Investing in the Future
  • 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil
  • 2007: An industry redefined
  • 2006: Reshuffling the deck
  • 2005: Gradual evolution
  • 2004: Migration down, innovation up
  • 2003: The competition heats up
  • 2002: Capturing the migrating customer

American Libraries

Library Journal

Library Systems Report 2014

Library Systems Report 2014 Spanish


http://www.thinkepi.net

Library Systems Report 2014 Arabic

Library Systems Report Tables


http://www.americanlibrariesmagazine.org

Broad Industry Trends

  • Continued Consolidation
  • International companies increasingly dominate in a growing set of international regions
  • Discovery services now routine infrastructure in academic libraries
  • New Generation systems becoming better established
  • New and existing systems shifting to hosted or SaaS deployment
  • Subscription-based technology infrastructure

Latin American Industry Trends

  • International companies target well-funded libraries
  • As libraries develop, many move to systems from international providers
  • Many operate through regional distributors
  • Local systems and open source dominate smaller and less well funded libraries
  • Cloud technologies often less well suited
    • Bandwidth, annual subscription costs

The Evolution of Library Resource Discovery

Challenge: More integrated approach to information and service delivery

  • Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos:
    • Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module)
    • Search the Web site
    • Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections
    • OpenURL linking services
    • E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver)
    • Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides)
    • Local digital collections
      • ETDs, photos, rich media collections
    • Metasearch engines
    • Discovery Services – often just another choice among many
  • All searched separately

Online Catalog

  • Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level
  • Not in scope:
    • Articles
    • Book Chapters
    • Digital objects
    • Web site content
    • Etc.

Scope of Search


Search:

Search Results

ILS Data

Discovery from Local to Web-scale

  • Initial products focused on technology
  • Current phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery

Web-scale Index-based Discovery


Search:

Digital Collections

Web Site Content

Institutional Repositories

E-Journals



Reference Sources

Search Results

Pre-built harvesting and indexing

Consolidated Index

ILS Data

Aggregated Content packages

(2009- present)

Usage-generated Data

Customer Profile

Open Access

Profile of Library Subscriptions

Open source in Discovery

  • Flexible and powerful open source interfaces:
    • VuFind (php-based)
    • Blacklight (Ruby on Rails)
  • No open access discovery index
  • Hybrid model:
    • Open source interface +
    • Commercial Index

Bento Box Discovery Model


Search:

Digital Collections

Web Site Content

Institutional Repositories

E-Journals

Search Results

Pre-built harvesting and indexing

Consolidated Index

ILS Data

Aggregated Content packages

Open Access

VuFind / Blacklight

Biblioteca Nacional de Universidad de Chile

Challenge for Relevancy

  • Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR
  • Difficult to order records in ways that make sense
  • Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query
  • Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings

Socially-powered discovery

  • Leverage use data to increase effectiveness of discovery
  • Usage data can identify important or popular materials to inform relevancy engines
  • Identify related materials that may not otherwise be uncovered through keyword matching
  • Be careful to avoid introducing bias loops

Evaluating Index-based Discovery Services

  • Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator
  • Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone.
  • Important to ascertain now your library’s content packages are represented by the discovery service.
  • Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full text
  • Important to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisher

Library Perspective

  • Strategic investments in collection materials: print, digital, and electronic
  • Strategic investments in Discovery Solutions to provide access to their collections
  • Expect comprehensive representation of resources in discovery indexes
  • Need to be able to evaluate the coverage and performance of competing discovery models

Update on the NISO Open Discovery Initiative



ODI context


Facilitate a healthy ecosystem among discovery service providers, libraries and content providers

Balance of Constituents


Libraries

Publishers

Service Providers

Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt University Jamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University

Laura Morse, Harvard University

Ken Varnum, University of Michigan

Sara Brownmiller, University of Oregon

Lucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer)

Michele Newberry

Lettie Conrad, SAGE Publications Roger Schonfeld, ITHAKA/JSTOR/Portico Jeff Lang, Thomson Reuters

Linda Beebe, American Psychological Assoc Aaron Wood, Alexander Street Press

Jenny Walker, Ex Libris Group John Law, Serials Solutions Michael Gorrell, EBSCO Information Services

David Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC)

Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer)


ODI deliverables

  • Standard vocabulary
  • NISO Recommended Practice:
    • Data format & transfer
    • Communicating content rights
    • Levels of indexing, content availability
    • Linking to content
    • Usage statistics
    • Evaluate compliance
  • Inform and Promote Adoption

ODI Timeline


Milestone

Target Date

Status

Appointment of working group

Dec 2011

Approval of charge and initial work plan

Mar 2012

Completion of information gathering

Jan 2013

Completion of initial draft

Jun 2013

Completion of final draft

Sep 2013

Public Review Period commences

Sep 2013

NISO Publishes Recommended Practice

June 2014

E-Books in Libraries

  • Academic Libraries focus on chapter-level access for reference and research
  • Public Libraries aim to provide full lending and reading experience
  • Critical for libraries to master e-books as they gain more prominent place in general society

Challenges for library automation

  • Provide the same types of management control for e-books as other collection component
    • Acquisitions: select and acquire materials from multiple providers
    • Cataloging: High-quality descriptive metadata
      • Electronic copies appropriately aligned with those in print or other media
    • Circulation: Integrated with other media.
      • Option to lend e-reader devices
    • Discovery
      • Integrated with all other formats
      • Unified environment for content delivery

E-Book Integration Model


Search:

Digital Collections

Web Site Content

Local E-book

Repository

Search Results

Index

ILS Data


Aggregated Content packages

Library Catalog

External

E-Book Lending Service

Authentication

Checkout - Download

Discovery


Trends in Management of Library Resources

Dynamic Library Environment

  • Requires technologies responsive to the changes in play
  • Adapt to publishing models and new formats that reshape library collections
  • Generational Change in Technology
  • Changes in metadata practices and standards

Bibliotecas en la Transición

  • Cambio de lo impreso > electrónico
    • Transición casi completa de revistas electrónicas
    • Transición de libros impresos a libros electrónicos (e-Books)
  • Las bibliotecas académicas están viendo la disminución de la circulación impresa
    • Las bibliotecas públicas están viendo un aumento en la circulación impresa
  • Necesitan mejores herramientas para que sus usuarios puedan acceder a colecciones complejas de materiales  en diferentes formatos: impresos, electrónicos y digitales

Usuarios de la biblioteca en la Transición

  • La nueva generación de usuarios de la biblioteca
    • Autosuficiente - reacios a pedir ayuda
    • Estilos de trabajo colaborativos
    • Digital nativos – “digital natives”
    • Se perciben a sí mismos como competentes para utilizar las herramientas de información sin la ayuda de los bibliotecarios o maestros
      • Pero no son necesariamente competentes en la búsqueda de información.

Los Cambios en la gestión de los metadatos

  • De priorizar la creación del registro, se pasa a la gestión a nivel de colección
  • Metadatos muy compartidos: enfoque de base de conocimientos (broadly shared metadata, knowledge bases)
  • Gran interés en el avance hacia la web semántica y abrir los datos vinculados (open linked data)
    • AACR2 > RDA; MARC > RDF > BIBFRAME

RDA

  • Resource Description and Access
    • http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/
  • Major change relative to resources devoted to transition
  • Minor impact relative to operational and strategic use of metadata

BIBFRAME

  • Emerged from the Initiative for Bibliographic Transformation of the Library of Congress
    • http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/
    • bibframe.org
  • Replacement for MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging), but broader in scope
  • Encoded using RDF (Resource Description Framework)
  • Major departure from MARC
  • Today more conceptual than operational

Transformación de las tecnologías

  • Arquitectura orientada a servicios
  • Énfasis en las Interfaces de programación de aplicaciones
  • Integración de las aplicaciones sociales en infraestructura básica
  • Computación local a cambio de plataformas en la nube
  • Nuevas expectativas para múltiples usuarios de software-as-a-service
  • Soporte para todos los tipos de dispositivos
    • de tamaño completo computadoras / tablet / móvil

Tecnologías de la Computación en Nube (Cloud Computing)

  • Las principales tendencias en Tecnología de la Información
  • Esencialmente la externalización del alojamiento y gestión del servidor
  • Productos de automatización de la mayoría de las nuevas versiones con un cierto sabor de computación en la nube
  • Depende del ancho de banda de Internet, que sea rápida y fiable (fast and reliable)

Biblioteca de automatización en la nube

  • Casi todos los proveedores de automatización de bibliotecas ofrecen algún tipo de servicios basados ​​en la nube
  • La responsabilidad de la administración de servidores se mueve de la biblioteca a los Proveedores
  • Basado en suscripción el nuevo modelo de negocio:
    • El pago integral de suscripción anual
  • Reduce la necesidad de apoyar la tecnología local

Cambios en el escenario de automatización de bibliotecas

  • SIGB (Sistema Integrado de Gestión de Biblioteca) sigue siendo el corazón de la infraestructura
  • Interés estratégico en tecnologías de descubrimiento
  • fuerte necesidad de herramientas para gestionar los recursos electrónicos
  • Tendencia hacia la gestión de recursos unificado

Las tendencias en modelos de implementación de automatización

  • Mayor interés en proyectos de cooperación para reducir los costos de automatización y para aumentar el impacto de las colecciones
  • Iniciativas regionales, estatales, nacionales y de infraestructura de automatización
  • Ejemplos reciente incluyen Dinamarca, Irlanda, Orbis-Cascade Alliance
  • Los SIGB independientes siguen donde la cooperación a gran escala no es posible

SIGB de código abierto: Escenario Internacional

  • Fuerte interés en EE.UU., Canadá
    • Principalmente a través de servicios de soporte comercial pagados
  • Muy poco o ningún interés en Asia
  • El interés sigue creciendo lentamente en Europa
  • Cada vez mayor interés en el software de código abierto en América Latina

Koha

  • Originally developed in 1999 for small group of libraries in New Zealand, Horowhenua Library Trust by Katipo Communications, production use by January 2000
  • Gained widespread use in the United States around 2004-05 and has seen steady growth in use
  • Wide international adoption
  • Used in many thousands of libraries. 2,682 represented in libraries.org, with many large groups not yet registered.
  • Dominant open source SIGB in Latin America

Koha Worldwide

National Projects to deploy Koha

  • Philippines: A systematic effort to install Koha in the public libraries sponsored by the state libraries
  • Turkey: 1,200+ public libraries
  • Spain: Koha-Kobli http://kobli.bage.es/
  • Argentina. CONABIP (Comisión Nacional de Bibliotecas Populares)
    • Customized version of Koha: DigiBepe
    • http://www.conabip.gob.ar/faq/digibepe

Evergreen

  • SIGB de código abierto desarrollado por el Sistema de Bibliotecas Públicas de Georgia en los Estados Unidos
  • Apoyado y desarrollado por una empresa llamada Equinox
  • Software originalmente diseñado para grandes consorcios compose de pequeñas bibliotecas
  • Se utiliza principalmente en los Estados Unidos y Canadá.
  • No implementaciones en de América Latina
  • Ver: http://www.open-ils.org/

Kuali OLE

  • ILS being developed for and by large academic and research libraries in an open source, community based model
  • Funded in part by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, managed through the Kuali Foundation
  • 4-year project to build the software recently concluded
  • Placed in production in August 2014 in University of Chicago and Lehigh University
  • Recent announcement that Kuali will move to for-profit business model (August 25, 2014)

Nuevas direcciones en el desarrollo de Automatización de Bibliotecas

  • Premisa fundamental: Impreso + Electrónico + Digital
  • Lo impreso domina en los SIGB tradicionales y eso no se adecua al modelo de la realidad actual de la biblioteca y al futuro
  • Las bibliotecas actualmente cuentan con un ILS núcleo, rodeado por módulos adicionales para manejar los contenidos electrónicos
  • Nuevas interfaces de descubrimiento que sustituyen o complementan el módulo de catálogo en línea del SIGB
  • Tecnologías en la nube ofrecen un potencial para nuevos niveles de eficiencia y cooperación

Unificado de Gestión de Recursos

  • Ya no es sensible el uso de diferentes plataformas de software para la gestión de los diferentes tipos de materiales de la biblioteca
  •  SIGB + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + la gestión de activos digitales, etc, es un muy ineficiente modelo
  • Es mejor tener una plataforma flexible capaz de gestionar múltiples tipos de materiales de la biblioteca, múltiples formatos de metadatos, con flujos de trabajo adecuado

Sistemas Abiertos

  • La apertura se ha incrementado como principal clave en las estrategias de tecnología de la biblioteca
  • Las bibliotecas necesitan llegar más lejos con sus datos
  • Capacidad para mejorar la experiencia del cliente y la eficiencia operativa
  • La demanda de interoperabilidad
  • De código abierto - el pleno acceso al programa interno de la aplicación
  • abierto API - exponer interfaces de programación a los datos y la funcionalidad

Library Services Platform

  • Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services
  • Services
    • Service oriented architecture
    • Exposes Web services and other API’s
    • Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users
  • Platform
    • General infrastructure for library automation
    • Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service
    • Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data

Library Services Platform Characteristics

  • Highly Shared data models
    • Knowledgebase architecture
    • Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores
  • Delivered through software as a service
    • Multi-tenant
  • Unified workflows across formats and media
  • Flexible metadata management
    • MARC – Dublin Core – VRA – MODS – ONIX
    • Bibframe
    • New structures not yet invented
  • Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability

Library Services Platforms


Category

WorldShare Management Services

Alma

Intota

Sierra Services Platform

Kuali OLE

Responsible Organization

OCLC.

Ex Libris

Serials Solutions

Innovative Interfaces, Inc

Kuali Foundation

Key precepts

Global network-level approach to management and discovery based on central data: stores WorldCat + holdings + Items

Consolidate workflows, unified management: print, electronic, digital; Hybrid data model

Knowledgebase driven. Pure multi-tenant SaaS

Service-oriented architecture

Technology uplift for Millennium ILS. More open source components, consolidated modules and workflows



Manage library resources in a format agnostic approach. Integration into the broader academic enterprise infrastructure

Software model

Proprietary

Proprietary

Proprietary

Proprietary

Open Source

Development Schedule


WorldShare Management Services

Alma

Intota

Sierra Services Platform

Kuali OLE

General Release in July 2011

~200 now in production

First ARL member in production in June 2014


329 libraries have signed for Alma. Over 200 in production

Libraries in production by 2015

336 contracts completed, many libraries in production (~250?)

Version 1.0 released Dec 2013

Version 2.0 underway

Summer 2014 implementations at

University of Chicago and Lehigh University


Library technical infrastructure


Consolidated index

Search Engine



Unified Presentation Layer

Search:


Digital Coll

ProQuest


EBSCO

JSTOR



Other Resources

`

API Layer



Library Services Platform

Learning Management

Enterprise Resource Planning

Stock Management

Self-Check / Automated Return

Authentication Service

Smart Cad / Payment systems

Discovery Service

Library Web Presence


Integrated Library System

Library Web site

Subject Guides

Article, Databases, E-Book collections

Public Interfaces:

Presentation Layer


Convergence

  • Discovery and Management solutions will increasingly be implemented as matched sets
    • Ex Libris: Primo / Alma
    • Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota
    • OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform
    • Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service
  • Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated knowledge bases
  • API’s exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies and synergies are lost

Progressive consolidation of library services

  • Centralization of technical infrastructure of multiple libraries within a campus
  • Resource sharing support
    • Direct borrowing among partner institutions
  • Shared infrastructure between institutions
    • Examples: 2CUL (Columbia University / Cornell University)
    • Orbis Cascade Alliance (37 independent colleges and universities to merge into shared LSP)

Challenges and opportunities for Latin America

  • Selective adoption of global trends
  • Some opportunities to acquire services from global providers
  • Spirit of technical proficiency and innovation
  • Exercise APIs of commercial systems
  • Adopt open source solutions and participate in their development communities
  • Create technical infrastructure to support unique character of libraries in Chile and Latin America

Gracias!



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