Computer Network Construction



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  • M. Sc. Juan Carlos Olivares Rojas
  • juancarlosolivares@hotmail.com
  • jcolivar@itmorelia.edu.mx
  • http://antares.itmorelia.edu.mx/~jcolivar/

Needs of Computer Networks

  • Outline
  • Needs of Computer Networks
  • Criteria for Computer Networks
  • Computer Network Planning
  • Network Design
  • Hardware and Software Selection
  • Assembly of the Network
  • Network Applications
  • Internet Conections

Construct a Computer Network Infrastructure using Structured Cabling Systems

  • Objectives
  • Construct a Computer Network Infrastructure using Structured Cabling Systems
  • Competences:
  • Making cables
  • Installing devices
  • Setup Computer, Host and Devices
  • Computer Network Planning

The first step in the construction of a Computer Network is the evaluation of what services must provide the network infraestructure.

  • Needs of Computer Networks
  • The first step in the construction of a Computer Network is the evaluation of what services must provide the network infraestructure.
  • The networks are diferent in homes, offices, enterprises, academic, etc.

Exist a lot of criteria for constructing a Computer Network such as:

  • Exist a lot of criteria for constructing a Computer Network such as:
  • Transfer a lot of Data (Bandwith)
  • Communication of Long Distances (WAN)
  • Transfer data quickly (High Speed Networks)
  • Low cost (Ethernet)
  • Multiple users (Segmentation)
  • Computer Network Planning
  • The planning process in general is dificult.
  • Planning consist in three principal activities:
  • Itinerary (Tasks, Subtask)
  • Estimation (Time, Cost and Assign Role)
  • Tracking (control)
  • What’s the problem?

The main problem in the construction of a computer network is the network modelling but not since logical point of view. We need consider the physical view.

  • Network Design
  • The main problem in the construction of a computer network is the network modelling but not since logical point of view. We need consider the physical view.
  • It’s important to develop a plan design of network. We need to know how is the physical construction when the newtork will be implemented (We need the architectonic plan)

We need to construct a Computing Laboratory for this school in this classroom.

  • Activity
  • We need to construct a Computing Laboratory for this school in this classroom.
  • The needs and criteria are: 25 PC (1 Server, Professor Machine), using Offimatic, Business, Languages and Mathematical Software.
  • Construct de the network planning and network design of this network.

It’s a process totally dependet of Network Budget.

  • Hardware and Software Selection
  • It’s a process totally dependet of Network Budget.
  • We not spare cost in hardware infrastructure.
  • The cabling system have an aproximate duration of 10 years (Actually We must construct using Cat 6 UTP for Example)

This process consist in the implementation and setup of hardware and software for the computer network infraestructure.

  • Assembly of the Network
  • This process consist in the implementation and setup of hardware and software for the computer network infraestructure.
  • For these situation, we need to known and apply an Structured Cabling System.

Components of Structured Cabling

  • Structured Cabling System
  • Components of Structured Cabling
    • Working Area
    • Horizontal Cabling
    • Backbone (Vertical) Cabling
    • Main Telecomunication Center
    • Intermedial Telecomunication Center
    • Incomming Services.

Planning of Structured

  • Structured Cable System
  • Planning of Structured
    • Electricity and Ground Conection Regulation
    • Solutions to drop voltages.
    • Security Normativity
  • Network Documentation

Es una metodología para diseñar e instalar de manera adecuada redes de comunicación, particularmente, redes de computadoras.

  • Cableado estructurado
  • Es una metodología para diseñar e instalar de manera adecuada redes de comunicación, particularmente, redes de computadoras.
  • Define más que una simple estructura o forma de realizar cableados de casas y empresas. Forma un estándar para simplificar las cosas. Se centra en la fase de planeación, instalación y expansión de la red.
  • It’s called Layer 0
  • What’s the problem?

Safety is the primary concern.

  • Safety Procedures
  • Safety is the primary concern.
  • General safety precautions, while working with network building materials - both electrical and construction.

A Structured Cabling System is a cabling and connectivity products that integrates data, voice, video and various management system of a building

  • Structured Cabling Systems
  • A Structured Cabling System is a cabling and connectivity products that integrates data, voice, video and various management system of a building

Redundancy at design stage reduces downtime & repair time

  • Benefits of Structured Cabling System
  • Redundancy at design stage reduces downtime & repair time
  • Ease of fault location & repair
  • Flexibility, expandability & modular connecting platform
  • Ease of moves, adds and changes
  • Enhanced end-use understanding and control
  • Significant long term cost containment

Cable Tray

  • Cable Distribution System
  • Cable Tray
  • Raised Floor
  • Conduit
  • Hung Ceiling / False Ceiling
  • Figure 1
  • Figure 1
  • Structured Cabling Components

installing outlets

  • Work Flow
  • installing outlets
  • installing jacks
  • running cables
  • punching cables into patch panels
  • testing cables
  • documenting cables

installing NICs

  • Work Flow (cont)
  • installing NICs
  • installing hubs, switches, bridges, and routers
  • configuring routers
  • installing and configuring PCs
  • Place Copper Wires into a Jack

A cut sheet

  • Documenting Cable Runs
  • A cut sheet
    • is a rough diagram that shows the locations of the cable runs.
    • indicates the numbers of the classrooms, offices, or other rooms, to which the cables have been run.
    • to place corresponding numbers on all telecommunications outlets and at the patch panel in the wiring closet.

Labeling

  • Labeling
    • NO terms such as "Mr. Zimmerman's math class," or "Ms. Thome's art class".
    • incorporate room numbers in the label information
    • incorporate color coding
      • For example, a blue label might identify horizontal cabling at the wiring closet only, while a green label might identify cabling at the work area. 
    • mark the cable three times, approximately 60 cm apart
    • Allow enough cable for the ends to reach all the way to each jack location, plus enough excess or slack to reach the floor and extend another 60-90 cm.
    • Do not cut the cables unless they have a label.

decorative raceway

  • mounting cables in raceway
  • decorative raceway
  • gutter raceway
    • a less attractive alternative to decorative raceway.
  • mounted with adhesive backing or with screws

turn off power to all circuits that might pass through those work areas

  • SAFETY RULES
  • turn off power to all circuits that might pass through those work areas
  • Never, ever, touch power cables
  • learn the locations of all fire extinguishers in the area.
  • Long pants and sleeves help protect your arms and legs. Avoid wearing excessively loose or baggy clothing.

protect your eyes with safety glasses

  • SAFETY RULES (cont)
  • protect your eyes with safety glasses
  • If you anticipate working in a dropped ceiling area, survey the area.
  • Follow building safety codes

wall-mounted gutter

  • wall-mounted gutter
  • tie-wraps
  • ladder rack
  • Tools
    • A telepole
      • is nothing more than a telescoping pole with a hook at one end to hold the cable.
      • is used to string cable across a dropped ceiling or attic quickly.
    • fishing cable
      • When you pull cable up through a wall, you ordinarily work from an attic or dropped ceiling space

the equipment in a wiring closet includes:

  • Wiring Closets
  • the equipment in a wiring closet includes:
    • patch panels
    • wiring hubs
    • bridges
    • switches
    • routers

The baseline

  • Network Operating Test
  • The baseline
    • is a record of your network's starting point or newly installed performance capabilities.
  • Continue to test your network on a regular basis in order to ensure that it performs at its peak
  • A cable tester is a hand held device that can certify that cable meets the required IEEE and TIA/EIA standards.

determine cable distance

  • Cable Tester
  • determine cable distance
  • locate bad connections
  • provide wire maps for detecting crossed pairs
  • measure signal attenuation
  • measure near-end crosstalk 
  • detect split pairs 
  • perform noise level tests 
  • trace cable behind walls 
  • Cable Tester (Cont)
  • Conexión de cables
  • Jack
  • Jack
  • Para que la electricidad fluya entre el conector y el jack, el orden de los hilos debe seguir el código de colores T568A, o T568B recomendado en los estándares EIA/TIA-568-B.1
  • Configuración
  • Conexión directa
  • Utilice cables de conexión directa para el siguiente cableado:
    • Switch a router
    • Switch a PC o servidor
    • Hub a PC o servidor
  • Conexión Cruzada
  • Utilice cables de conexión cruzada para el siguiente cableado:
        • Switch a switch
        • Switch a hub
        • Hub a hub
        • Router a router
        • PC a PC
        • Router a PC
  • CABLE TESTER.
  • We all have some ugly wiring

Labeling is a key to reduce work later

  • Labeling is a key to reduce work later

Fiber has bend radius issues

  • Fiber Optic Cable Construction
  • Fiber has bend radius issues

Leave slack loops

  • Fiber Optic Cable Construction
  • Leave slack loops
  • Cutting, Striping & Crimping Tools
  • Punching Tool

Try to avoid running cables parallel to power cables.

  • Cabling Rules
  • Try to avoid running cables parallel to power cables.
  • Do not bend cables to less than four times the diameter of the cable.
  • If you bundle a group of cables together with cable ties (zip ties), do not over-cinch them. You should be able to turn the tie with fingers.
  • Keep cables away from devices which can introduce noise into them. Here's a short list: copy machines, electric heaters, speakers, printers, TV sets, fluorescent lights, copiers, welding machines, microwave ovens, telephones, fans, elevators, motors, electric ovens, dryers, washing machines, and shop equipment.
  • Avoid stretching UTP cables (tension when pulling cables should not exceed 25 LBS).
  • Do not run UTP cable outside of a building.  It presents a very dangerous lightning hazard!
  • Do not use a stapler to secure UTP cables.  Use telephone wire/RJ6 coaxial wire hangers which are available at most hardware stores.

Exist a lot of normativity and best practices for the correct construction of cables:

  • Standards
  • Exist a lot of normativity and best practices for the correct construction of cables:
    • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B
    • ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A
    • ANSI/TIA/EIA-607
    • ANSI/TIA/EIA-570-A
    • ISO/IEC 11801

Horizontal Cabling

  • Subsystem of a Structured Cabling System
  • Horizontal Cabling
    • Cable from patch panel to work area
    • Telco outlets
    • Cable terminations
    • Cross-connections
    • One transition point
    • Maximum length – 100 meters
      • 90 meters for cable
      • 10 meters for 2 patch cables

Entrance Facility

  • Cabling Subsystem cont.
  • Structured Cabling in SOHO
  • IBM Cable Types
  • Type 1A
  • Type 2A
  • Type 3
  • Type 5
  • Type 6
  • Type 8
  • Type 9
  • IBM Data Connector

Existen dos razones principales para segmentar o dividir una LAN.

  • SEGMENTACIÓN
  • Existen dos razones principales para segmentar o dividir una LAN.
  • Aislar el tráfico entre segmentos.
  • Obtener más ancho de banda por usuario para crear dominios de colisiones pequeños.
  • Si no existiera la segmentación, las grandes redes LAN rápidamente serian invadidas por tráfico y colisiones, y provocaría virtualmente en falta de ancho de banda. Los dispositivos como bridges, switches y ruteadores segmentan la red LAN.
  • SEGMENTACIÓN

Es usada la segmentación usando bridge para proporcionar mayor ancho de banda.

  • SEGMENTACIÓN Bridge
  • Es usada la segmentación usando bridge para proporcionar mayor ancho de banda.
  • El bridge permite sólo la información que tienen destinación fuera del segmento.
  • Aprende una segmentación de red para construir tablas de direcciones que contienen las direcciones de cada dispositivo de red dentro del segmento.
  • SEGMENTACIÓN Bridge

El propósito de la segmentación usando switch es que es fácil reducir los cuellos de botella de red.

  • SEGMENTACIÓN Switch
  • El propósito de la segmentación usando switch es que es fácil reducir los cuellos de botella de red.
  • Un switch segmenta una LAN dentro de microsegmentos.
  • El switch determina cual es la acción a tomar sobre la información si esta localizada en otro segmento, la información se transfiere o switchea a otra destinación.
  • SEGMENTACIÓN Switch

Los ruteadores crean los mayores niveles de segmentación debido a su habilidad de realizar determinaciones exactas de donde enviar la información al usar su tabla de ruteo.

  • SEGMENTACIÓN Router
  • Los ruteadores crean los mayores niveles de segmentación debido a su habilidad de realizar determinaciones exactas de donde enviar la información al usar su tabla de ruteo.
  • SEGMENTACIÓN Router

The network applications is the last past in the construction of computer networks.

  • Network Applications
  • The network applications is the last past in the construction of computer networks.

Actually conects to other networks is cruatil in many home and organizations specially with Internet.

  • Internet Conections
  • Actually conects to other networks is cruatil in many home and organizations specially with Internet.
  • We need to rent a contract with a Internet Service Provider to connect with remote networks.

Forouzan, B. (2008), Data Comunications and Networking, 4th. Edition, McGraw-Hill.

  • References
  • Forouzan, B. (2008), Data Comunications and Networking, 4th. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
  • Tanenbaum, A (2004). Computer Networks. 4th Edition. Prentice Hall.
  • Kurose, J. and Ross, K. (2007) Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 4th edition. Addison-Wesley, July 2007.
  • ¿Preguntas?


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