Adverbios de modo los adverbios de modo describen cómo hacemos algo o cómo sucede algo Para formar un adverbio, normalmente se añade el sufijo



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SUFIJOS

Un sufijo es una letra, o grupo de letras, que se añade al final de una palabra para formar una nueva palabra. Normalmente cambia el tipo de palabra (sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo, etc.) pero no el significado:


Create (verbo) creation (sustantivo, cosa); creativity (sustantivo, abstracto); creador (sustantivo, persona); creative (adjetive); creatively (adverbio)

ADVERBIOS DE MODO



  • Los adverbios de modo describen cómo hacemos algo o cómo sucede algo

  • Para formar un adverbio, normalmente se añade el sufijo –ly al adjetivo

Quiet quietly

  • A veces la ortografía del adjetivo tiene que cambiar:

easy easily terrible terrible

  • Algunos adverbios son irregulares.

good well fast fast hard hard early early late late (hardly = almost not) (lately = recently)

  • No todas las palbras que terminan en –ly son adverbios. Estos son algunos ejemplos de adjetivos que terminan en –ly

lovely friendly lonely likely (=probable)

  • Posición dentro de la oración:

Los adverbios de modo normalmente van justo después del verbo o al final de la frase.

Cuando van al final de la oración, siempre siguen el siguiente orden: M P T (manner, place and time)

( modo, lugar y tiempo)

He walked quickly past the door

He walked past the door quickly

SUFIJOS ADJETIVALES

ADJETIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE VERBOS


Sufijo

Verbo

Adjetivo

-ive

también: massive



act

attract


compete

construct

create

decide


destroy

effect


produce

receive


support

active

attractive

competitive

constructive

creative

decisive


destructive

effective

productive

receptive

supportive


-able

accept

believe


comfort

enjoy


irritable

predict


profit

question


reason

recognize

understand

use


wash

acceptable

believable

comfortable

enjoyable

irritable

predictable

profitable

questionable

reasonable

recognizable

understandable

useable/usable

washable


-ible

también: horrible, terrible



access

comprehend

convert

divide


eat

sense


accessible

comprehensible

convertible

divisible

edible

sensible



ADJETIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE SUSTANTIVOS


Sufijo

Sustantivo

Adjetivo

-y

cloud

dirt


dust

fun


hair

hunger


luck

rain


sleep

sun


thirst

cloudy

dirty


dusty

funny


hairy

hungry


lucky

rainy


sleepy

sunny


thirsty

-al

accident

economy


electricity

environment

globe

industry


logic

music


nation

origin


politics

profession

region

sentiment



accidental

economical

electrical

environmental

global

industrial



logical

musical


national

original


political

professional

regional

sentimental



-ful

care

colour


help

hope


pain

peace


success

thought


use

wonder


careful

colourful

helpful

hopeful


painful

peaceful


successful

thoughtful

useful

wonderful



-less

help

hope


pain

sleep


thought

use


helpless

hopeless


painless

sleepless

thoughtless

useless



SUFIJOS NOMINALES

SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE ADJETIVOS



Sufijo

Adjetivo

Sustantivo

-dom
también: kingdom

bored

free


boredom

freedom


-ity

active

complex


creative

curious


dense

equal


formal

generous


real

regular


secure

similar


stupid

superior


activity

complexity

creativity

curiosity

density

equality


formality

generosity

reality

regularity



security

similarity

stupidity

superiority



-ety

anxious

safe


anxiety

safety


-ness

aware

blind


dark

happy


ill

lonely


mad

sad


weak

awareness

blindness

darkness

happiness

illness

loneliness



madness

sadness


weakness

-ence

adolescent

confident

different

independent

intelligent

obedient


patient

present


resident

violent


adolescence

confidence

difference

independence

intelligence

obedience

patience

presence


residence

violence


-ance

(dis)appeared

assured


elegant

extravagant

ignorant

important

insured

relevant


disappearance

assurance

elegance

extravagance

ignorance

importance

insurance

relevance



-cy

accurate

decent


diplomatic

efficient

fluent

frequent


private

urgent


accuracy

decency


diplomacy

efficiency

fluency

frequency



privacy

urgency


SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE VERBOS


Sufijo

Verbo

Sustantivo

-ment

(un)employ

amuse


appoint

arrange


assess

develop


embarrass

excite


govern

improve


retire

(un)employment

amusement

appointment

arrangement

assessment

development

embarrassment

excitement

government

improvement

retirement


-ion

create

destroy


discuss

educate


explain

express


hesitate

impress


invent

operate


organize

creation

destruction

discussion

education

explanation

expression

hesitation

impression

invention

operation

organization


-ure
también: leisure

fail

please


press

failure

pleasure


pressure


SUSTANTIVOS NORMALMENTE FORMADOS A PARTIR DE OTROS SUSTANTIVOS



Sufijo

Sustantivo

Sustantivo

-ship

Friend

relation


Friendship

relationship


Sustantivos – personas


-er writer, painter

-or decorador, actor

-ist scientist

Pronunciation:
Los sufijos nunca llevan el acento:
Lucky hopeless colourful industrial comprehensible attractive
ACTIVITIES
Put each word in the correct column. In one column there are two words:
Create creator creation creatively creativity creative


verb

Noun

(abstract /thing)



Noun

(person)


adjective

adverb














Add these words to the table. Complete each column using suffixes when necessary


Help photograph produce
Suffix noughts and crosses


-ion

-ity

-or

-er

-ful

-ive

-ly

-y

-ness


ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
Look at these words. Which suffixes do we need to change them into adjectives? Put them in the correct column(s). In some cases, you may need to change the spelling.





-y

-al

-ful

-less

-ible

-able

-ive





















Choose the correct word in each of these rules:




  1. The suffixes –ive, -able, -ible are normally only added to verbs / nouns

  2. The suffixes –y, -al, -ful,- less are normally only added to verbs / nouns




  1. Complete each sentence with an adjective from the table




  1. These new shoes are very _______________. They don’t hurt at all.

  2. His writing is very _________________. He writes fast and makes a lot of mistakes.

  3. There’s always a _________________ explanation for even the strangest phenomena.

  4. He hates making choices. He’s not very __________________.

  5. A pocket dictionary can be ________________ when you go to different country for holidays.

  6. Those new clothes make you look really _________________.




  1. Add two adjectives to each column in the table.

3. Adjective race


Make teams. Look at these definitions for adjectives. Each adjective ends in a suffix from the table. Who can find all six adjectives first?





  1. Something that can be wash without problem is w___________________ (8 letters)

  2. When the sky is grey, It is c______________. (6 letters)

  3. Someone who is very private and likes keeping secrets is s_______________ (9 letters)

  4. Someone who has the ability to invent original things or ideas is c_______________ (8 letters)

  5. Something you like or that gives you pleasure is e______________ (9 letters)

  6. Someone who is quiet because they are thinking about something is t_______________ (10 letters)


Adjective suffixes

  1. Which suffix do you need to change the words in each list into adjectives? Remember, you sometimes need to change the spelling.

Cloud, dirt, rain -y



  1. understand, reason, wash

  2. logic, economic, historic

  3. care, harm, use (2 suffixes)

  4. attract, support, construct

  5. access, convert, comprehend

Now complete each of these sentences with an adjective




  1. Smoking can be ________________ to your health

  2. His parents are very ________________. He can always rely on them to help him

  3. My town is very _______________ . It’s easy to get there

  4. We have to put the customs of the Ancient Egyptians in their proper _____________ context.

  5. If I find a car at a ________________ price I’ll buy it.



NOUN SUFFIXES
TEENAGE

STRESS
For many teenagers, daily stress is a very real problem. It often starts for them at school. 'I just hear the word exam and I panic”, says 16-year-old Joanna Smith from Telford.

Even when you don't have to do exams, there's the pressure of too much work, bullying, problems, with friendships, loneliness and just wanting to be liked. And at home there might be family problems too, from arguments with your parents to dealing with a divorce. Then there's “ the 'bigger picture”, since young people are more likely to worry about the environment, crime and unemployment problems.

Just as there are many causes for stress, the way it manifests itself also varies. Stress can turn you off your food, stop you sleeping properly and even be the reason for stomach pains, backache or a stiff neck. Irrational fears, are also common. That's when one bad mark gives you the impression you are a total failure.

B
-dom -ity -ety -ness -ment -ion -ure -ship
ut for all the negative effects, stress can actually be good for you. A small amount of it can help you to work better, and too little stress can result in boredom. The key is balance. You must learn how to beat off unhelpful levels of anxiety. The highs of being a teenager-the freedom, the excitement of trying new things, the possibility of so many new experiences ahead of you - are mixed with the lows too. According to Joanna, you needn't worry too much. 'You ought to remember that problems will come up all through life, but I think you have to experience the downs to really appreciate the good bits.'

Find words with each of these suffixes in the text. What do all the words have in common?



Noun suffixes

Choose the correct word in each of these rules.




  1. The suffixes -dom. -ity. -ety. -ness are normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns.

  2. The suffixes -ment, -ion, -ure are normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns.

  3. The suffix -ship is normally only added to verbs/adjectives/nouns

1
real sad equal express hesitate arrange develop happy weak stupid dark impress
Change these words into nouns and put each one in the correct column.



-ion

-ment

-ity

-ness












3 Complete each sentence with a noun from above



a You have to stop dreaming and accept the ______________of the situation.

b He went out into the _____________of the night.

c Helen accepted the present without a moment's__________________.

d Shall we make an ______________ to meet next Friday?

e 'Cheers, mate' is a colloquial _____________in English.

f What are the plans for future _______________ in this country?
Work in pairs. Take it in turns to say a base word from this page. If your partner can make a noun, he/she chooses another word. When one of you cannot make a noun. the other player scores a point and 'serves' the next word.

A: Free

S: Freedom. Stupid

A: Stupidness

B: No! Stupidity. 15-0. Friend

Change these words into nouns, using suffixes


Equal hesitate impress develop stupid weak happy arrange
Complete each sentence with one of the nouns.


    1. I wish you __________________ and good health

    2. He ran out of the door straight away, without a moment’s __________________

    3. I’ve made a special _________________ to see him

    4. When you meet someone for the first time, try to make a good _________________ on them

    5. There should be _______________________ between all different races

    6. Jane has a _________________ for chocolate biscuits

    7. Technological _______________ is very important for progress

    8. I can’t believe the ___________________ of people who throw litter in the street


Add a correct suffix (-ful or –less) to the following nouns in order to complete the text below. Use each word only one.

Care use hope help thought power
As I was walking next to the sea, I saw a man trying to swim to the shore, but he couldn’t because the waves were too __________________ . I thought it was very ___________________ of him to go swimming in the sea when the waves were so high. As each wave hit him, he became more and more _____________________. There was nothing he could do so I had to do something for him.
I found a rope which I thought could be _______________ . I threw it to him and he managed to reach the shore. When I pulled him out of the water, he was shaking. He said that he had been sure the situation was _______________________ .
I offered to take him home in my car. He thanked me for being so ________________________
Add a suitable suffix (-able, -al, -ive or –ous) to the following nouns or verbs to form adjectives. Use a dictionary to help you and make any necessary changes.


    1. understand

    2. electricity

    3. impress

    4. ridicule

    5. luxury

    6. create

    7. fame

    8. depend

    9. accident

    10. adventure


Not every word which ends with the letters –able, -al or –ive is an adjective. Study the following groups of words and decide which word in each group is not an adjective. Use a dictionary if necessary
1. forgivable • vegetable • countable

2. active • sensitive • adjective

3. arrival • legal • musical

4. enable • unforgettable • enjoyable

5. expensive • deceive • productive

6. seasonal • interval • factual








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