Abstracts for the Panel Sessions resúmenes de los paneles



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Esteban Acuña: “Donde les vaya mejor ahí se quedan…” [“Where they are doing better, there they stay…”] Mobilities, lives and journeys of Romani groups across the Atlantic.

Recently, the labels 'Gypsy' and 'Nomad' have resurfaced in an avalanche of mediatic attention centered on human trafficking, poverty migration, deportation and criminality. The generalizing representations that have resurfaced have masked the complex realities of Romani groups and their movements. The proposed paper’s objective is to revise current approaches and state the need of a theoretical stance that can encompass, and not reduce, the diverse contexts and the mobile strategies that can be revealed by means of biographical narratives. For this purpose it describes the potentialities of the ‘mobilities’ concept to acknowledge ‘mixed movements’ inscribed in lives and trajectories.


Panel 36

Children: vulnerable subjects

CANCELLED/CANCELADO

Panel 37

Resettlement: Challenges and opportunities (I).


  1. Fathima Badurdeen: The Role of Development Initiatives in Promoting Peace Among the Refugee and Host Communities in Kenya.

This paper examines the bridging of refugee – host relationships in Dadaab, Kenya. The Dadaab refugee complex in the North Eastern Province of Kenya host’s the largest refugee population in the country. This paper explores the context of refugee-host relationship through an analysis of the causes of conflicts and the impact of development initiatives in bridging the refugee-host relationship. The causes of conflicts between the refugees and the host communities were analysed through the lenses of resource-based and identity conflicts. Secondly, the impact of various development initiatives were analysed through the generation of livelihood options, education opportunities, food insecurity and conflict transformation to bridge communities.


The paper highlights that the situation of refugees created both positive and negative opportunities for local hosts. Many host community members took advantage of these opportunities and benefited substantially from the presence of refugees and international relief organizations. Some did not benefit as much, and some even lost access to resources and power which they previously enjoyed. These were the main causes for conflicts emerging within the two communities. These realities were transformed by emerging possibilities and new circumstances provided by development initiatives initiated by relief/development organizations. They developed ways to cope with the negative impact of the refugees by creating ventures that did benefit both communities. These initiatives did result in promoting peace among the communities. These changing socioeconomic opportunities were likely to have long-term implications for the ongoing process of development in Dadaab.


  1. Jessica Chandrashekar: Infrastructure Development as Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka? Perspectives of Resettled IDP Women-Headed Households

On May 18th, 2009, the Sri Lankan government declared victory over the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Their victory came at a high cost with 70,000 civilian casualties and the internal displacement of 300,000 minority-Tamil civilians. The Tamil IDPs were placed into camps and the majority were resettled as of 2012. As a method of peacebuilding, the Sri Lankan government had initiated several large-scale development projects in the Northern Province and in the places were the IDPs have been resettled.

Feminist analyses have revealed the gendered norms which have limited peacebuilding frameworks. As feminist works on militarization, conflict and forced migration have illustrated, wars are fought in gendered ways and therefore have gendered effects. War effects women in specific ways such as through systemic sexual violence, widowhood and female-headed households, and a disproportionate number of those who are forcibly displaced are women (Giles & Hyndman 2004; Enloe 2000). Works on peacebuilding and internal displacement argue that the effectiveness of peacebuilding strategies are best measured through post-war perceptions of peace from the perspectives of IDPs (O'Neill 2009; Price 2010). When such analyses of IDPs and peacebuilding are done through a feminist lens, the intersections of displacement and gender can create nuanced and sustainable peacebuilding strategies. This paper uses a feminist approach to peacebuilding and displacement to analyze the state-led infrastructure development in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Interviews were conducted with thirty-two recently resettled IDP women heads-of-household to determine perceptions of peace, development, security and resettlement in post-war Sri Lanka.




  1. Petra Molnar Diop and Claire Tempier: Information and Communication Technologies and Refugee Resettlement: An International Comparative Approach

Refugee resettlement increasingly operates in a dynamic, fluid, and interconnected world which shapes the role of technology in response to refugee migration. The use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) by refugees and refugee claimants provides a framework for discussing the various responses that host countries take when dealing with the settlement and integration of refugees. This paper is part of an international study of the use of ICTs by refugees commissioned by Singa, a non-profit organization started in February 2012 and based in Paris. We work to improve the integration of refugees in host countries and highlight the positive impacts of refugees on the host countries. Through this research project, we provide a review of the use of ICTs by refugee support organizations (RSOs) and refugees themselves in different countries; encourage the sharing of best practices around the use of ICTs; and identify the potential risks and problems that emanate from the use of ICTs for refugee support organizations and for refugees. This paper provides a comparative approach between Australia, France, Kenya, Tajikistan, and Canada, through interviewing refugee claimants, community activists, and refugee support organizations. We explore how ICTs are used by refugee claimants upon their arrival in Canada and while they go through the process of claiming refugee status. We also examine how refugee serving organizations use technologies in their daily operations to support their clients and provide their settlement services.


  1. Marcia Vera Espinoza: Resettlement in South America: Experiences of Colombians and Palestinians resettled refugees in Chile and Brazil.

The paper aims to explore the experiences of integration of Colombian and Palestinian resettled refugees in Chile and Brazil, reviewing the differences and similarities in the resettlement process of a refugee community from within the region and one from outside the region. Through the analysis of the individual and collective experiences of integration, the paper aims to ground the resettlement regional agenda in Latin America and to explore its implementation from the voice of the refugees themselves. This exercise would allow to revise the dialogues and tensions related to the implementation of the program, but at the same time it would provide elements to theorize and discuss refugee integration. In this sense, the initial research findings explores refugees’ negotiations and understanding of their role in an ongoing process of integration and in relation with multiple actors.
The paper is part of my PhD research and builds up from data collected during two extended fieldworks in Chile and Brazil, where I interviewed more than 40 resettled refugees and 30 other actors involved in the programme in both countries.
By reviewing how and to what extent resettled refugees from different origins are integrating in Chile and Brazil, the paper will propose novel approaches to discuss integration. At the same time, it will describe the developments of the resettlement program and set some of the main challenges that resettlement faces in South America as a protection tool and durable solution.

Panel 38

Más que víctimas: estrategias de resistencia de los migrantes forzados


  1. Adriana Medina y Camilo Molina: Memorias y resistencias para la construcción de una ciudadanía desde abajo. Experiencias organizativas de la población refugiada como ampliación dinámica a las soluciones duraderas.

Analizar los riesgos que el derecho internacional de los refugiados puede generar al acentuar la despolitización de sujetos ya despolitizados por efectos de la migración forzada, y las dificultades para su la reconstrucción efectiva de sus derechos en los países de destino. Para esto, siguiendo a James Scott, se revisan la dinámica y demandas desde debajo de la población refugiada que adelanta prácticas de resistencia cotidiana y civil.

Así, retomando el enfoque agambeniano de nuda vida, se analiza el caso de procesos organizativos de refugiados en Ecuador como una forma subalterna de confrontar los impactos devenidos por la migración forzada y por la revictimización o victimización secundaria en los sitios de destino debido a la indefinición del goce de derechos desde la ciudadanía.
A su vez se describen los procesos en los cuales los refugiados agencian sus derechos frente a la despolitización derivada por el “interludio de soberanía” que representan para sus sociedades de origen y destino, propulsando un abordaje que complejiza y subvierte las “soluciones duraderas” más allá de un concepto de “desarrollo”, e incorporando la necesidad de superación de las causas de la migración forzada, especialmente por la persistencia de la violencia sociopolítica y la ausencia de paz integral.

Ahora bien, en esta ponencia también se revisan las derivas con que se han encontrado las iniciativas desde organizaciones de refugiados colombianos, los sistemas de protección, la imposibilidad de retorno ante la ausencia de paz en un contexto de diálogo dentro del conflicto y la persistencia y surgimiento de nuevas formas de violencia.



Finalmente, se elaboran algunas propuestas para la comprensión de las soluciones duraderas, la superación de una perspectiva desarrollista contenida en la propia ayuda humanitaria, el enfoque de derechos humanos, la articulación entre comunidad internacional, Gobiernos y SC para garantizar los derechos de los refugiados en escenarios de posconflicto, la articulación entre las organizaciones, recalcando la necesidad de abrir espacios de diálogo en la construcción de las políticas binacionales y un seguimiento a sus efectos.


  1. Juliana Vargas: Factores de éxito de los proyectos agropecuarios de las poblaciones desplazadas retornadas en Colombia. Estudio de caso sobre El Salado (Montes de María).

En esta investigación se usó la metodología de estudio caso y herramientas cualitativas (entrevistas y análisis documental) para responder a la pregunta sobre cuáles son los factores que inciden en el éxito de los proyectos agropecuarios desarrollados por poblaciones desplazadas retornadas en Colombia. Se seleccionó el caso de El Salado, en los Montes de María, por tratarse de un retorno rural con más de 12 años, que ha contado con la participación activa de la comunidad, que se ha beneficiado de procesos regionales de reactivación económica y reintegración social y que desde hace más de 4 años cuenta con un ambicioso proyecto de reconstrucción integral (la alianza El Salado Revive). En éste participa un número significativo de actores privados (más de 70) y de instituciones públicas (20), bajo el liderazgo de la Fundación Semana, en una acción coordinada y planeada inicialmente para 5 años. En esta investigación se estudiaron 6 proyectos agropecuarios que cuentan con características y modelos de intervención diferentes. Se construyeron líneas de tiempo para cada uno de éstos, que serán entregadas a los entrevistados. Se evaluó el nivel de éxito alcanzado en cada uno de los proyectos, empleando un concepto de éxito elaborado en esta investigación. Este tiene en cuenta la generación de ingresos sostenibles y suficientes para la subsistencia en condiciones dignas, pero también incorpora otras variables propias de la reparación transformadora y la reconstrucción del tejido social. Se concluyó que los proyectos agropecuarios para la población desplazada retornada: i) se construyen sobre la base de aprendizajes previos, ii) se benefician de las dinámicas económicas y sociales regionales y contribuyen a su vez al fortalecimiento de éstas y iii) tienen a la asistencia técnica permanente como un factor para su éxito. Se formularon recomendaciones de política pública que tienen en cuenta las subvenciones vigentes para el sector agropecuario y los mecanismos existentes para la integración regional.


  1. Diana Fuentes Becerra y Clara Atehortua: Entre la asistencia y el desarrollo: ciudadanía desplazada.

En la normativa colombiana existe un contexto favorable para el restablecimiento de los derechos de las víctimas de desplazamiento forzado. Por tanto, las condiciones para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía están dadas en términos formales. El concepto de ciudadanía al que se espera que llegue la población en situación de desplazamiento, se encuentra en las políticas de atención humanitaria y desarrollo. A partir de ahí, se genera un enfoque para la atención y una perspectiva de lo que debe hacerse para superar la situación de desplazamiento. Esa perspectiva establece una inclusión especial de las víctimas. No obstante, la autorepresentación y participación de las personas en situación de desplazamiento está limitada. Parte de esta limitación surge de entender la victimización como una condición en donde subyace una situación traumática. Esto ha permitido, que durante el periodo en que existe dicha situación, personas se abroguen la representación de las víctimas de desplazamiento. Esto genera una respuesta de la población víctima, tanto para lograr la inclusión como ejercicio de autorepresentación paralelo a la propuesta institucional. Es necesario entender el papel de la condición traumática en términos de la disminución de la ciudadanía de la población desplazada. En este orden de ideas, la ponencia se dirige a establecer cómo la concepción de víctima centrada en el trauma crea una brecha para que la población desplazada alcance el goce pleno de la ciudadanía.
Panel 39

Return as durable solution


  1. Alexandra Saieh: The International Community and Its Influence in Defining the Palestinian Right of Return

Following the 1993 Oslo Accords, there was an influx of foreign aid as well as development and humanitarian organizations tasked with transitioning Palestinians into independent statehood. The Oslo Accords redefined the terms of engagement between the Palestinians and Israel while also leaving the most critical and contentious issues unresolved, paramount among them the Palestinian right of return. This paper will explore the role of INGOs in redefining the Palestinian right of return and their complicity in removing it from the international agenda and discourse around a final resolution for the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

The series of agreements known as the Oslo Accords primarily dealt with issues that emerged from Israel’s 1967 war, while refugees from 1948 were ignored and further disenfranchised with the birth of the Palestinian Authority (PA). The PA, whose establishment was one of the most significant outcomes of the series of agreements, partook in the “territorialization” of Palestinian identity. For this paper, I will explore the role of international stakeholders as well as Palestinian leadership in shaping the stipulations of the Oslo Accords and the approach to the refugee question. I will examine the mandates of key international NGOs, specifically examining how their mandates in the oPt were formed and how these organizations have approached the refugee issue. Finally, I will identify ways in which these international organizations could instead play a role in reaffirming the right of return for the millions of Palestinians still living in exile and once again including it on the international community’s agenda.


  1. Ina Jahn and Matthew Wilhelm-Solomon ‘Bones in the Wrong Soil’: Reburial, Belonging and Durable Return in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda.

In the aftermath of the civil war in northern Uganda between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Ugandan government, most of the internally displaced have returned home. Efforts to remake these homes and reorder lives have since taken centre stage. A prominent concern among returning families regards relatives who died during the displacement period and had to be buried in the camp. Life in internal displacement camps also hampered the appropriate ritualization of burial, which is widely believed to cause spiritual distress to the families. Many families hence invest in reburials to return such “bones in the wrong soil” from former camp sites to the deceased’s home villages. Based on an ethnographic study of reburial in northern Uganda, the paper thus argues that reburials stem from a cosmological idiom in which belonging is spiritually embedded and territorially circumscribed. Further, the very materiality of reburial further becomes implicated in post-conflict land disputes and agendas of ‘reconstruction’. Yet, these issues are rarely engaged with in contemporary debates around ‘durable solutions’ and the return of the displaced. In policy debates on durable solutions, local ideas informing relationships of people to place are overlooked with the emphasis being put on livelihood and economic and infrastructural concerns. Moreover, much of the academic debate has been oriented towards the deconstructing of common sense ideas of linear and ‘natural’ relationships between people and place (e.g. Malkki 1994, Warner 1992, 1994). The paper thus argues that contemporary debates in forced migration studies have failed to grasp the importance of territory and local cosmologies in the post-displacement phase. In showing that territorialized approaches towards resettlement are not simply a function of an outdated refugee discourse, the case is made for durable solutions to also be informed by an understanding and respect for local cosmologies.




  1. Brittany Wheeler: ‘If repatriation is the solution, what then is the problem?’ The Repatriation of Human Remains as a Lesson on Durable Solutions

This paper aims to critically examine the process of voluntary repatriation and durable solutions by utilizing the lessons found in the practical work of returning human remains from protracted situations within museum collections. The contemporary policies and guidelines that encourage or require the return of individuals from these institutions often strike upon similar and important themes facing practitioners and policymakers when they attempt to understand or surmount obstacles or propose and effectuate durable solutions in the form of repatriation. These areas of similarity include but are not limited to the categorization of displaced people (especially over time), the role of the state or institution in acceding to or flouting relevant laws, and the conceptualization of what constitutes a completed or successful repatriation. This paper will draw on several UN frameworks such as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), a document in support of the repatriation of human remains, and the UNHCR‘s proposed durable solutions for displaced persons, in addition to other documents in both museum and migration literature. This paper aims to shed light and raise questions around the presentation of the voluntary repatriation process as a linear, goal-oriented, or codified cultural understanding of expected return by drawing insight from the repatriation work of museum institutions, which have acted as both complicit parties to colonial displacement and its spoils as well as contemporary centers for proactive discussion and work surrounding the ethics of representing ongoing global flows.


4.- Callixte Kavuro and Alice Wamundiya Regional responses to forced migration: Exploring the relationship between Rwandan refugees proacted situation and insecurity in the Great Lake Region.
This paper critically analyses the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) responses to the 1994 forced exodus of Rwandan populations into neighbouring countries (mainly the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Burundi and Tanzania) in finding durable solutions in the context of repatriation to the said exodus. It seeks to reflect on the complex dynamics of the relationship between forced migration and insecurity, and how the UNHCR’s misconceived and misguided responses to Rwandan refugees’ exodus contributed to the current protracted political anarchy and armed conflict prevailing in the Great Lakes region. Furthermore, it seeks to contribute to theoretical understanding of Rwandan refugee protracted situations as well as helping regional and international actors to effectively respond to it. Unresolved aspects of Rwandan refugee problems are, according to human rights reports, major contributory factors to armed violence occurring in the eastern of DRC. Lack of an impartial and holistic approach to resolving Rwandan refugee problems led Rwandan refugees to take arms in an effort to resolve their problems through violence, instead of peaceful means. This violence has claimed millions of lives and have forced millions others to migrate, as well as contributing to the perpetual and protracted regional crisis in the Great Lakes region.

This paper intends to demonstrate that a lack of a more holistic and comprehensive dialogue, in which refugees must actively participate in, as well as other peace building mechanisms has not and will not respond to the concerns or issues that caused them to flee. It will argue that a lack of consultation would, in various respect, lead to resisting a forced repatriation as it undermines refugees’ autonomy and runs against their fundamental rights to participate in the decision making that might adversely affect their lives. Accordingly, this paper will conclude by suggesting that regional and international actors' responses to aspects of refugee problems should take into account the voices of refugees for a dignified repatriation and a long lasting peace. Facilitation of dialogue between refugees and their country of origin should not be overlooked. Refugees and their home country should set and drive the agenda for peace, with the support of the international community, as without the victims (refugees) themselves being actively involved in the quest for durable solutions, long-term peace will remain elusive.



Panel 40

Desplazamiento por causas ambientales


  1. Robert Niantello: OIM Migración y Cambio Climático: Una Realidad Mundial que Toca a Colombia.

El desplazamiento interno o migración como respuesta a los desastres climáticos y degradación ambiental implican la consideración en todo momento previo durante y posterior al desastre de la garantía de derechos y asistencia humanitaria. Frente a esta población que desde OIM hemos denominado los Migrantes ambientales, no se han logrado generar consensos, ni standars en definición, marco conceptual, impacto y necesidades, que deban abordarse, pues depende de cada tipo del impacto climático o ambiental, y de cómo cada gobierno aborda sus obligaciones con las comunidades afectadas.


Los derechos humanos estándar y las obligaciones de cada estado, deben ser aclarados para proteger a todas las víctimas, incluidas aquellas poblaciones que han adoptado la migración de manera voluntaria, asociada a un desplazamiento consciente, planeado y ordenado o, aquellos afectados por una migración forzada como respuesta a un evento repentino climático. Las sequías y desertificación, están obligando a la población a entrar en un esquema de migración laboral. Un gran porcentaje de la zona de frontera colombiana está acotada por ríos y otra por mares. La búsqueda de protección temporal en zonas de frontera se ve condicionada al grado de afectación de sus terrenos, hogares y medios de vida. Los esquemas de retorno no están siendo monitoreados ni acompañados por el país de origen. La comunidad en general y las entidades de cada estado llamadas a brindar protección desconocen su rol tras la frontera, tiempo de acción y mecanismos de financiación. Es momento de fortalecer a los estados es esta realidad que son los migrantes ambientales en Colombia.

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