Abstracts for the Panel Sessions resúmenes de los paneles



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Bárbara Nava: Vacíos de protección a personas en situación de refugio. Visión comparada entre Panamá, Venezuela y Ecuador.




  1. João Jarochinski Silva: El debilitamiento de la protección a los refugiados en Europa

Desde los acuerdos de Dublín, La Unión Europea empezó a practicar una política de regulación común para la entrada de refugiados. Entretanto, tal política es marcada por una visión que define la inmigración solo por una perspectiva de seguridad y con el pasar de los anos, hizo con que la recepción y aceptación de refugiados se transformase en un proceso muy burocrático y complicado que dificultó la entrada de los refugiados en solo europeo.
Hay también que se destacar que las políticas de control migratorio de Europa que criminaliza la entrada irregular también tiene impacto en la realidad de los refugiados, pues muchos son impedidos de adentrar en Europa en una especie de refoulement preventivo, que se inician en las políticas de codesarrollo con diversos países, principalmente de la África del norte, cuando los refugiados no tienen la posibilidad de hacer un pedido de refugio para las autoridades de estos países, o cuando hay aprehensiones en aguas internacionales por países europeos que simplemente hacen la devolución de los inmigrantes, siendo que algunos de estos son, con toda la certeza, potenciales refugiados.
Las acciones europeas están en desacuerdo al previsto en la Convención de los Refugiados y su protocolo, se transformando en un marco de la preocupación con el debilitamiento de las normas internacionales de protección a la persona humana, principalmente en países como los europeos, que fueron históricamente actores muy importantes en la construcción de la protección de los refugiados.


  1. Jorge Álvarez Nieva: Los desafíos pendientes a treinta años de la Declaración de Cartagena

A casi 30 años de la Declaración de Cartagena, los Estados, el ACNUR, la academia, las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y organizaciones internacionales han iniciado una serie de reuniones de expertos a fin de aclarar la interpretación y aplicación de los elementos del derecho internacional humanitario y del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, contenidos en la citada definición ampliada.


Es así que en septiembre del año 2012 tuvo lugar en Ciudad del Cabo, una mesa redonda sobre protección internacional para personas que huyen de conflictos armados y otras situaciones de violencia, y recientemente en la ciudad de Montevideo la reunión de expertos sobre la interpretación de la definición de refugiado incluida en la Declaración de Cartagena.
En este contexto es que se ha visualizado la necesidad de contar con directrices sobre protección internacional para aclarar la interpretación y aplicación de instrumentos jurídicos internacionales y regionales sobre refugiados de solicitudes de asilo de personas que huyen de conflictos armados y otras situaciones de violencia.

Este trabajo se propone analizar a partir de la participación de quien suscribe en ambos encuentros y de las conclusiones de los mismos, sobre la necesidad de un análisis sustantivo de cada uno de los elementos de la definición ampliada, así como la práctica y doctrina internacional y regional desarrollada en la utilización de la misma, y de cómo ha sido interpretada por los Estados.




  1. Ángela Iranzo: Debates académicos sobre trata de personas en América Latina

En la última década, en América Latina, la trata de personas ha sido un tema abordado, principalmente, por agencias internacionales de cooperación, funcionarios judiciales y ONGs. Muy poco se ha profundizado en la comprensión de este fenómeno desde los análisis e investigaciones académicas. De hecho, gran parte de la literatura en la región la conforman informes y manuales de prevención, protección y asistencia realizados, en su mayoría, por los actores mencionados.
El propósito de esta ponencia es, por tanto: i) identificar los debates académicos que se puedan están desarrollando en la región, ii) determinar la influencia en ellos de los marcos conceptuales y teóricos desarrollados en EEUU y Europa, y iii) contribuir al desarrollo de la reflexión teórica latinoamericana de acuerdo con las particularidades asociadas a la trata en la región, bajo las tendencias de crecimiento económico, internacionalización de mercados, desarrollo y paz. En particular, se abordará el paradigma de la víctima como sujeto y objeto, el impacto de la globalización y la integración de mercado, los métodos para considerar como éxito y fracaso las iniciativas gubernamentales.
Panel 31

Redes sociales y espacios de protección de las personas en situación de desplazamiento. La complejidad de la búsqueda de soluciones duraderas para la construcción de la paz
El objetivo de este panel es presentar los primeros resultados de un proyecto de investigación en curso, que lleva por título “Hacia un nuevo marco conceptual para la protección del desplazamiento forzoso de población”1. El proyecto parte de la asunción que la debida protección de la población desplazada se ve dificultada por la carencia de un marco teórico-conceptual que defina dicha protección: es difícil diseñar programas de protección sin saber exactamente qué significa protección para las personas desplazadas y para los distintos actores relacionados con dicho fenómeno, ni cómo evaluar los objetivos de un programa, ni cómo involucrar adecuadamente a la población afectada ni a los actores responsables en protección. En estas condiciones, la prevención del desplazamiento y la búsqueda de soluciones duraderas al mismo se torna ambigua y poco efectiva, como muestran los distintos estudios sobre el desplazamiento. Se hace necesario analizar cómo la población desplazada deviene sujeto socio-político y desarrolla su capacidad de protegerse (agencia) mediante el establecimiento de relaciones e interacción con otros actores sociales (análisis de redes sociales y de sistemas complejos) También es posible analizar cómo la población desplazada y las instituciones humanitarias generan el necesario espacio socio-político seguro de actuación para proteger(se) respecto al desplazamiento. Sin reconocer la complejidad de la búsqueda de soluciones duraderas para para las personas desplazadas desde nuevos marcos conceptuales, la construcción de la paz se torna un objetivo difícil de alcanzar.


  1. Redes sociales, espacio y poder (“social agency”) de población desplazada. Enrique Eguren Fernández.

Frente a abordajes reduccionistas del desplazamiento forzoso (como los que frecuentemente se dan desde lo estrictamente humanitario o desde ciertos gobiernos), se hace necesario reconocer la complejidad del fenómeno del desplazamiento forzoso, su carácter híbrido y las reconfiguraciones espaciales y de poder (agency) que suceden en torno al desplazamiento y que especialmente han de suceder al buscar soluciones sostenibles al mismo. Reconocer esta complejidad es posible al romper la etiqueta de “persona desplazada” y analizar cómo quienes están en situación de desplazamiento devienen sujetos y agentes, cómo la teoría de redes sociales permite analizar agencia (y poder), y cómo a partir de dicha agencia generan nuevos espacios sociales y eventualmente procesos de “reterritorialización” que conducen hacia soluciones sostenibles.




  1. Donny Meertens, Profesora Asociada Universidad Javeriana (Bogotá); Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Fellow (Washington DC.), Septiembre 2013/Mayo 2014. Desigualdades y conflictos en la restitución de tierras. Una mirada desde el género a la implementación de la Ley 1448 en Colombia.

Colombia es uno de los pocos países – sino el único- donde se implementa la restitución de tierras, como medida de reparación integral a la población víctima de desplazamiento forzado y despojo. Hasta el momento, el balance de monitoreo de la Ley ha sido mixto, reconociéndose las bondades del enfoque general pero a la vez descubriéndose las dificultades del diseño institucional al enfrentar las realidades locales. Esta ponencia añade otro elemento a la compleja dinámica de restitución en lo local: las desigualdades y conflictos de género. Estos se presentan como micro-procesos a nivel de la comunidad y la familia, a la vez que constituyen, en un sentido más amplio, un elemento clave de la democratización y la justicia social en el campo, lo cual pone a prueba el potencial transformador de la Ley y su articulación con los resultados de las Conversaciones de Paz. La presentación se basa en trabajo de campo en la Costa Caribe; la revisión de Sentencias dictadas en cinco departamentos y algunas “excursiones comparativas” a políticas agrarias y género en otros países en postconflicto.


Conflict and Unequality in land restitution. A Gendered Analysis of the implementation of Colombia´s Victims and Land Restitution Law.

Colombia is one of the few countries – if not the only one – in which land restitution is implemented as a measure of comprehensive reparation for victims of forced displacement and violent land seizures. Until now, monitoring results have been of a mixed nature, balancing the benefits of the Law´s general approach against its institutional flaws when confronted with local realities. This paper adds an additional complexity to the restitution process: the gendered conflicts and unequalities at the local level. Although these might be seen as micro-processes at the community and family level, they also constitute key elements, in a broader sense, for democratization and social justice in rural areas, and as such challenge the transformative potential of the Law and its links to the outcomes of the Peace Conversations. This presentation draws on field work in Colombia´s Caribbean Coast; the revisión of Judicial decisions in five departments and some “comparative excursions” to agrarian policies and gender in several post-conflict societies.



Panel 32

Cine Foro:

“Retratos en un mar de mentiras” (English subtitles)
Marina, muchacha retraída, muda y amnésica, maltratada por su abuelo y por la mayoría de la gente que la rodea, vive en un tugurio de Bogotá. Tras la muerte de su abuelo, su primo Jairo, un fotógrafo ambulante, alegre y hablador, le propone recuperar la tierra de la que fueron desplazados años atrás. Viajan desde Bogotá a la Costa Caribe Colombiana en un viejo Renault 4, desafiando camiones enormes, paisajes abruptos y retenes militares. Pero Jairo no le teme a nada y para él, el plan es evidente: encontrar las escrituras y recobrar lo que es suyo. Durante el viaje, Marina comienza a recordar. Al regresar a su pueblo se encuentran en medio del conflicto del que huyeron cuando eran niños.

Panel 33

Round Table

Advancing Peace and Addressing Forced Migration Through eLearning: Using Online Course Instruction, Ongoing Professional Development, and Continuing Education for Peacebuilding and Protecting the Rights of Forced Migrants.
It is common place to observe that the World Wide Web or Internet has transformed economic, social and political relations in modern societies. The use of modern computer technologies, including the Internet, for instructional purposes, at all levels, or elearning has become all pervasive. However, what is less known or understood is how elearning programmes and systems can be used to promote peace building, while at the same time, protecting the rights of forced migrants. The use of online courses, certificates and degree programmes, for generating greater capacity for the promotion of peace and the protection of the rights of the displaced will be explored and examined in detail in this Round Table. For instance, the speakers will seek to address some fundamental questions such as how can elearning be used to advance the cause of peace in those societies that are wracked by armed conflict? Can offering and promoting mass public education through elearning help to advance peace building and peace keeping processes? Can web platforms such as the Online Research and Teaching Tools and Practitioners Forum (ORTT & PF), http://rfmsot.apps01.yorku.ca/, the Refugee Research Network (RRN), http://www.refugeeresearch.net/ and others, constructively support the efforts of online instructors and students alike in the field of peace making, peace building and peace keeping and, if so, how? This Round Table will undertake a cutting-edge examination and analysis of how new communications technologies and the Internet are being used for peaceful purposes and the advancement of the protection of forced migrants.
Panel 34

Framing identities and regarding rights: Reconciliation in post War Sri Lanka


  1. Keeping Rights Alive: Reform and Reconciliation in Post-War Sri Lanka. By Mario Gomez (LL.B; LL.M; Ph.D).

The war in Sri Lanka came to a sudden end in May 2009 when the Sri Lankan military defeated the LTTE. The UN and other organizations alleged that thousands of civilians died in the final phases. These claims were denied by the government. Till now there has been no accounting process of the final stages of the war.


Many societies that transited from war to peace or dictatorship to democracy negotiated political compromises, established new institutions and constitutions, and in some cases probed the past. Some societies consulted displaced populations and ensured their participation in return and resettlement. Not so in Sri Lanka. The government’s victory over the LTTE has enabled it to ignore the issues that gave rise to the violence and pursue a development agenda with little participation from conflict affected populations.
Sri Lanka is a much safer place to live in than it was three years ago. Yet the unwillingness of the state to address issues relating to justice and institutional reform, and to engage in a consultative processes of development are generating new sets of fears, including among populations that were displaced and have now returned or reintegrated. Post-war reconstruction has been tightly controlled and the country has yet to see a genuine transitional justice process.
This paper will explore the challenges of transition in a society that previously had a strong commitment to multi-party democracy and the rule of law. It will explore the ‘rule of law’ challenges the country faces and the demands of conflict affected populations, including those who have returned or reintegrated, for justice and institutional reform.



  1. From War to Peace: Voices from Former War Zones’. A presentation based on the book ‘From War to Peace: Voices from Former War Zones’ (June 2013). By Minna Thaheer and Kasun Pathiraja

This study was an effort to understand post-war reconciliation process, as experienced by different communities in war-affected villages, in the North and East of Sri Lanka. Since May 2009, ‘reconciliation’ has been a growing concern for all concerned with the future trajectory of Sri Lanka. ‘Reconciliation’ is defined, understood and constructed in diverse and contradictory ways by the stakeholders involved, which complicates an already complex and precarious situation. Among these stakeholders, the study looked at various migrants and IDPs experiences in a post-war context.


It is generally held that any holistic reconciliation process at the outset should ensure the reintegration and return of communities back to their ‘homes’. However, this study, ironically, identified the inverse. The multiple facets of forced migration (both internal and external) in former war zones, due to new forms of insecurities and context insensitive reconstruction projects, highlighted several deterrents to the reconciliation process.
Four key causes of forced migration in post-war Sri Lanka were identified and discussed in the study, along with their consequences:
1. The implementation of arbitrary resettlement programmes by the government, with increased militarization, which has forced communities to settle in new and unfamiliar places.
2. Unequal infrastructure and livelihood development projects in war-affected zones, which have forced men to migrate to urban areas, leaving women alone and vulnerable in highly militarized conflict zones.
3. Conflict-induced forced migration to India and other countries, which have been met by a lack of inclination and lethargy towards reintegrating in post-war Sri Lanka.
4. Migration to other countries as a result of threats, fear and poverty, backed and fuelled by national and international human smuggling networks.
This study used a pluralist research methodology consisting of a series of in-depth interviews and dialogue sessions with communities in the former war zones combined with a survey of 600 respondents. Findings of the study captured the multidimensional relationship between migration and reconciliation on the ground.


  1. Danesh Jayatilaka: Post war resettlement of IDPs in Sri Lanka: Analyzing housing and livelihoods aid using an economics lens

This paper looks at livelihoods recovery of post-war resettled people in Sri Lanka. The researcher selected a war affected village that had received extensive housing and livelihoods donor aid, and conducted a series of quantitative and qualitative surveys in 2011 to measure the income recovery levels of the members. The theoretical framework for the study was drawn from the DfID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) and the Impoverishment Risks and Livelihoods Reconstruction (IRLR) model, and the information was analyzed by way of triangulating case studies, quantitative data using graphs, and regressions that looked at income recovery along with housing and livelihoods aid and other influencing factors. The findings using mixed methods suggested that there was no significant or positive relationship between housing assistance and income recovery, while there were consistent results that livelihoods aid directly supported the recovery and economic sustainability of the people, in spite of the fraction of resources allocated for the sector. The regressions in particular showed a very significant relationship between livelihoods assistance and income recovery along with other factors such as beneficiary’s sex and health. Further it was revealed that those who received larger housing packages ended up poorer, in the long term, than those who received more modest grants, implying that the resource weights currently allocated among housing and livelihoods needs reviewing by policy makers to increase aid effectiveness.


  1. Internally Displaced Persons: Where Do They Belong? Avanthi Kalansooriya (BA (Hons) International Relations)

One of the major problems post-war Sri Lanka grapples with is the issue of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the North, who were forced to migrate during the last phases of war in 2009 to the camps established for the IDPs; leaving behind land, houses, economic assets and livelihood options.


With mounting international pressure the Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) took hasty measures to resettle the IDPs, stating that the problem of IDPs was resolved with the official closure of Menik Farm, the largest IDP camp in Sri Lanka (UNHCR 2012). Placing these actions in the context of realist discourses, where State priority is to safeguard national security and state sovereignty, this paper looks at how the GoSL responded to international pressure. It will analyse such specific events and speeches, where decisions related to IDPs were made, in order to avoid international criticism regarding government policies designed for the resettlement of IDPs in North. The modern discourse of security within the discipline of International Relations however that such traditional security approaches that focus solely on realist fundamentals and national security concerns and are detrimental for human security.
This paper will challenge the national security discourse in order to assert that human security must also be placed at the heart of security discourse. Further, the paper attempts to understand the dilemmas embedded in the everyday lives of the IDPs in the relocated areas, whilst emphasizing why their everyday life issues matter in macro-political decision making. A combination of a literature survey, along with a thorough analysis of government responses post-2009 in international forums, on Northern IDP issues will be conducted in order to support this study.


Panel 35

In a strange land: Forced migrants experiences


  1. Ayar Ata: Kurdish diaspora in London

My research question is twofold: dealing with Kurdish displacement history and their diaspora identity in London. I aim to explore a historical argument about the Kurds as “powerless victims of the First World War”. I will look critically at the history of the modern nation state in the Middle East as a context for explaining and for gaining a better understanding of the systematic marginalization and displacement of the Kurds since 1918. I will also aim to demonstrate the complex position of the Kurds throughout history: their different status as “victims”, “subjects”, “minority group”, and “citizens” and their diaspora formation and transnational identity.


The second part of this study is to evaluate the integration experience of the Kurdish Diaspora in London. I will attempt to understand the shifting position of the Kurds from “victims” in the region to “active citizens” in London or Kurdish Londoners, including looking at the place and perspectives of the young and second generation Kurds who were born in Britain. This part will discuss the notion of “identity” and the idea of “home” and “belonging” in the light of contemporary theories of Refugee and Diaspora Studies and where necessary challenge them. Furthermore, I also aim to uncover the gaps in the existing literature and critically highlight the dominance of policy and politics driven research and thereby justifying the need for a new approach. This will include looking at the living experience of members of the Kurdish diaspora communities in London; a critical analysis of history and identity, considering the perspectives of both group and individuals.


  1. Charles Gomes, FCRB.Colombians in Brazil, Toward What Type of Resettlement?

Resettlement is one of three durable solutions to deal with the difficulties of refugees in the world, the main goal is to provide solutions that end the cycle of displacement and allow refugees to lead normal lives. Brazil is part of the small group of countries that voluntarily offers resettlement places as an expression of its international solidarity intent in foreign policy. This paper proposes a reflection on how this program has been implemented in the country by focusing on a sample of Colombians that have been living in Brazil for more than three years. By focusing on this group of refugees, the study presents the successes and failures of the policies taken by the actors involved in the resettlement program (UNHCR, NGOs, local and federal government agencies). The goal is to balance the outputs and the outcomes of this policy. Which are the groups that better fits in Brazilian society, which are the ones with more difficulties and why. The intent is to understand the limits, the challenges and how effective is the program in Brazil and what would be the venues for improvement.



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