La política sobre desplazamiento interno en Colombia sólo contempla el conflicto como causa admisible de desplazamiento que merece protección. El hecho de tener una de las políticas de desplazamiento interno más sofisticadas del mundo y ser un país altamente vulnerable a desastres ambientales y especialmente sensible a los impactos del cambio climático, hacen que sea pertinente reflexionar sobre esta omisión. La presentación tiene como objeto mostrar un estado del arte de la discusión en el derecho internacional y en el derecho interno sobre la protección de la migración forzosa producida por desastres medioambientales y por transformaciones asociadas al cambio climático. También se mostrarán las posibilidades de desarrollo de una política y una institucionalidad a nivel interno que responda a este fenómeno considerando la coyuntura actual en el cual se está elaborando un plan nacional de adaptación al cambio climático en Colombia.
Manuel Guzmán Hennessey Klimaforum Latinoamérica Entre 2020 y 2050 el problema central del mundo será el de las migraciones climáticas.
Los impactos cruzados del cambio climático repercutirán sobre las poblaciones más vulnerables, principalmente, entre 2020 y 2050. En esta presentación se planteará la necesidad de estudiar a profundidad este tema, desde una perspectiva compleja. A la luz de los datos actuales y de las proyecciones de la ciencia. El experto en alimentos Norman Myers ha dicho que es probable que en 2050 haya mil millones de migrantes climáticos. Las catástrofes naturales desplazaron en 2009 a 17 millones de personas en el mundo. Este dato subió a 42 millones en 2010.
El cambio climático y el cambio global amenazan ya los medios de vida de las personas, quienes deben emigrar en busca de agua y comida. Los desplazamientos poblacionales por esta causa son cada vez mayores y no han sido categorizados debidamente.
Se analizarán las complejas interacciones entre los factores que pueden dar lugar a distintos tipos de migraciones climáticas. Y se planteará la necesidad de incorporar estos factores a las políticas públicas de adaptación al cambio climático, prevención de riesgos y desastres y atención de emergencias humanitarias.
El trabajo toma como fuentes principales los datos de OIM, el Informe DARA 2012 y el Quinto Informe de Evaluación del Cambio Climático del IPCC.
Clara de la Hoz: Universidad de Versailles. Proyecto de tesis sobre desplazamiento climático y procesos de reinstalación de poblaciones en Colombia
En el 2010-2011, Colombia vivió uno de los peores desastres naturales de su historia. La temporada de lluvias resultó anormalmente intensa, provocando inundaciones masivas en gran parte del país. Una de las zonas más afectadas se encuentra en el sur del departamento del Atlántico, en donde las fuertes lluvias causaron la ruptura de un boquete del Canal del Dique, desencadenando inundaciones repentinas y provocando el desplazamiento de miles de familias. Tres años después del desastre y de los primeros desplazamientos, el gobierno se propone reubicar a las familias vulnerables en el marco de un programa de reinstalación. A partir de un enfoque etnográfico, este proyecto de investigación busca analizar el impacto de los procesos de reinstalación de las poblaciones en situación de desplazamiento por causa de desastre en el desarrollo de factores de resiliencia ante los riesgos asociados a las variaciones y cambios climáticos en el sur del departamento del Atlántico.
Hasta la última piedra. (English subtitles) El lunes 21 de febrero de 2005 en el municipio de San José de Apartadó, (Urabá Antioqueño, noroccidente de Colombia), ocho personas (entre ellas cuatro niños) fueron masacradas por un grupo de soldados del ejército de Colombia. ¿La razón? Hacer parte de la Comunidad de paz de San José de Apartado. ¿La respuesta del Gobierno colombiano ante las declaraciones de la comunidad internacional? Ni condena ni rechazo frente al crimen y la orden de instalar un puesto de policía en el casco urbano del pueblo. ¿La reacción de los campesinos a la llegada de la fuerza pública? Abandonar el pueblo, instalarse en una finca de la comunidad y comenzar la construcción de un nuevo caserío.
Realizado pocos meses después de la masacre, el documental de Juan José Lozano es un testimonio del valeroso acto de los habitantes de San José de Apartadó de ejercer, como población civil en medio de la guerra, el derecho a declararse zona neutral. Un derecho reconocido por la Convención de Ginebra, violado por el gobierno colombiano. Un derecho que se convierte en la lucha diaria, sin armas, de más de setenta familias por vivir pacíficamente en su tierra, prefiriendo desplazar el caserío a convertirse ellos mismos en desplazados.
Transitional Justice and forced migrations
Anna Purkey: Transitioning to Justice: Legal Empowerment in Protracted Refugee Situations
There is a growing acknowledgement that the resolution of conflict and the resolution of situations of displacement are inseparable and that one component critical to the success of transitional justice initiatives is the engagement of displaced populations. Nevertheless, there are substantial impediments that may prevent the meaningful participation of refugees in these initiatives, not least of which is their lack of legal agency and a tradition of exclusion from the law. The effective engagement of refugees is dependent upon the existence of a facilitating institutional framework and upon their ability to use the law to further their rights and interests. Consequently, in this paper I argue for the overriding importance of the legal empowerment of refugees as a central capability in itself and as a crucial enabling mechanism for the realization of the rights enshrined in both international treaties and domestic legislation. Moreover, I argue that facilitating the legal empowerment of refugees is not only a moral and ethical duty but also a legal obligation that arises as a function of the fiduciary relationship that exists between refugees and those that exercise unilateral power over them, specifically the host state and UNHCR. Not only does legal empowerment protect refugees from domination and instrumentalization by powerful actors, it ensures that they have the capabilities to claim their rights, to demand justice and to contribute to the establishment of accountable governance both during exile and during transition without which there can be no transitional justice and no resolution of displacement or conflict.
Fathima Badurdeen: Linking Transitional Justice with Durable Solutions for the Displaced: Exploring the Case of Protracted Displacement and Transitional Justice in Sri Lanka
This paper addresses the prevailing knowledge gap on examining the relationship between transitional justice and internal displacement. Sri Lanka has faced massive waves of displacement throughout its history of the twenty six year old deadly conflict between the Sri Lankan government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). These displacements have resulted in massive human rights violations such as arbitrary arrests, torture, rape and killings. Debates also surround on the context of whether certain waves of displacement were intentional and constitute a war crime. This also includes violations associated with displacement along with specific abuses of rights associated to durable solutions. Amidst these contexts, it becomes futile to address transitional justice without addressing the human rights violations of the displaced. For, transitional justice incorporates the addressing of legacies of massive human rights abuses that occur during armed conflicts which includes the displaced, as well as the rights of the displaced in the context of durable solutions.
Truth commissions, reparation programmes and reparative measures such as restitution of housing, land and property have directly addressed the aspect of human rights of the displaced which are the core attributes of transitional justice. The paper brings in a comparative approach based on best practices from different countries that have highlighted this relationship between displacement and transitional justice.
Based on an analysis of secondary literature, the paper highlights that effective transitional justice measures need to address the issue of displacement. The efficacy of such processes is dependent on the meaningful engagement of displaced persons through participation. Engagement of women does assist in incorporating a gender perspective to transitional justice and also redress gender-based injustice. Transitional justice can also facilitate the political integration/reintegration of displaced persons by reaffirming basic norms that were systematically violated and thereby strengthening their rights as citizens of the country.
Hulya Dincer: Internal Displacement and The Right to Truth and Reparation in Turkey
During the fifteen-year conflict between state forces and Kurdish Workers Party, according to official records (1,5 million at least according to nongovernmental organizations) 380.000 Kurds were displaced from the southeast Turkey and were condemned to live in urban poverty and destitution after their domiciles and villages have been destroyed. This systematic and deliberate displacement policy has been accompanied by large-scale atrocities committed by paramilitary forces. Avoiding to acknowledge state responsibility of destruction and eviction of villages and in the absence of a judiciary mechanism willing to prosecute the perpatrators and reveal the truth, State has confined itself to elaborate a law in order to cease the flue of hundards of cases leading to the European Court of Human Rights. Bounding the right to a compensation by very strict evidence rules and avoding the formal recognition of the dignity of victims of displacement, this law merely offers pecuniary compensation for the material losses. Faced by thousands of cases of displacement, ECHR has limited its assesment to the pecuniary compensation and refused to engage in a discussion as to the intentional public policy of displacement conducted by Turkey. The reparation scheme drawn by the Court has failed to offer a full and fair satisfaction to victims of displacement and remained incapable to lead to a public acknowledgement based on an comprehensive and effective legal investigation. Departing from the reparation policies elaborated in Turkey and intending to a critical analysis of the ECHR jurisprudence, this paper aims to discuss the current economic based reparation policies for displacement and will defend that a full and effective satisfaction must not only focus on easing the immediate effects of displacement but has to opt for a justice based perspective by providing accountability and full disclosure of truth.
Complex forced migration scenarios.
Georgia Cole: The Politics and Paradox of the Rwandan Cessation Clause
This paper will critically examine the politics of the refugee Cessation Clause by explaining the paradox seen whereby this proxy declaration of ‘peace’ and stability has resulted in regressive patterns of forced migration. Drawing upon the Cessation Clause for Rwandan refugees, it will argue that the emergence of a temporally restricted determination of ‘peace’ within the international refugee regime has provided a paradigm through which states and institutions can defend certain interests in ways often anathema to the protection of refugees. Armed with an internationally-endorsed determination that its country is ‘safe’ for the repatriation of some of its refugees, the Rwandan state has, for example, been bolstered in its efforts to delegitimise all continuing claims for protection registered by its citizens seeking asylum abroad. This has generated new patterns of forced migration as Rwandan refugees, fearing the cancellation of their status, have undertaken irregular secondary movements to guarantee protection. This paper thus problematizes the axiomatic interpretation of peace as signalling the end of forced migration. It instead argues for a more precautionary approach informed by contemporary examples of refugee cessation during which determinations of peace have done nothing to alleviate the need for continuing international protection.
Dacia Douhaibi: Refugees: Security risks or agents of peace and development
This paper builds a bridge between the growing body of diaspora literature, which increasingly focuses on the capacities and capabilities of displaced communities and their use of transnational networks, and literature from refugee studies, which has only recently begun to incorporate work on the transnational behaviours of refugees. Linking these two bodies of literature provides an opportunity to consider the ways that refugees are practicing subtle and overt forms of resistance, stepping out of the ‘bareness’ imposed on them and acting, in fact, as agents of peacebuilding in countries of origin.
We are facing a period of increasing precarity for those displaced by conflict, evidenced by the growing tendency of states to securitize borders and criminalize refugees. As the spaces refugees inhabit become narrower and more perilous, refugees simultaneously develop creative ways to resist processes that may represent them as voiceless, vulnerable and apolitical. Diaspora communities, inclusive of refugees as ‘conflict-generated’ diasporas, often form strong transnational linkages that overcome barriers that constrain action. These linkages facilitate the transfer of information, as well as social, political and economic supports. Interviews of South Sudanese conflict generated diasporas in Canada and Kenya demonstrate how forced migrants work to create and support peacebuilding channels by employ creative use of transnational networks, achieving beneficial outcomes both for members of the diaspora and people at home. I argue that greater attention to the transnational activities of refugees demonstrates the crucial peacebuilding role that refugees play and, significantly, demonstrates the folly in labeling refugees as ‘security risks.’ This, in turn, points to the benefit to the international community of supporting refugee communities through resettlement as opposed to deterrence, encampment or detention.
Fabio Díaz: Managing Peacebuilding: The use of Managerial Tools to Support Policymaking after a Peace Process.
For more than 50 years, Colombia has suffered from internal conflicts between the government and different armed groups (guerillas, paramilitary forces, drug lords, private armies). Since last year, the negotiation process between the main guerilla group (FARC) and the government has defined a broad 6-topic agenda which hopefully will lead to a peaceful end of war.
A key component to the success of this negotiation is to incorporate public policies regarding victim´s reparation of this conflict (almost ten percent of the population in Colombia) or otherwise it could end like what happened in South Africa or Mozambique, where the reparation efforts ended up being limped initiatives mostly by the administrative limitations of the governments after the peace process. Peace was achieved but reparation ended being an incomplete task of the peacebuilding effort.
The purpose of this paper is to show how simulation tools such as system dynamics can be an effective approach to evaluate organizational requirements of comprehensive victim´s reparation policy in relation with forced displacement before implementing them. Under this approach policy makers could be able to evaluate, under different scenarios and incorporating elements such as information delays, feedback cycles, and other characteristics, the requirements that will be needed in order to support a successful implementation. To illustrate the importance of this approach we built a simulation model exemplifying the implementation of a policy aiming to repair victims from forced displacement in Colombia. To validate this approach we assess the land restitution policies towards the displaced population in Colombia.
Danesh Jayatilaka, Kopalapillai Amirthalingam, Rajith W. D. Lakshman and Asela Ekanayaka:Development Induced Displacement (DID) and Conflict Induced Displacement (CID): Commonalities and Differences in Wellbeing among Resettled Populations
Researchers studying resettlement had documented the asymmetric impacts of displacement. The divides between DID and CID had been particularly troubling with calls for greater investigations using enhanced methods. Victims are known to face a range of problems at individual, household, and community level as they transit between various phases of vulnerability. Instruments such as the IRLR had been useful to assess the depravations and risks of people while others such as the DfID SLF has been suitable for analyzing the dynamic ways people respond to livelihoods. Studies on wellbeing, though strictly not in the displacement or resettlement settings, have lent opportunities to understand the multidimensionality of human needs in material, non-material, objective and subjective terms. This paper provides empirical findings from a study conducted in the post war environment in Sri Lanka. The investigation targeted two resettled locations, namely Colombo for DID and Jaffna for CID to assess the impacts victims had undergone in relation to their wellbeing. Three crucial lenses were brought to bear: poverty; inequality; and violence for the assessment. Quantitative data along with qualitative fieldwork unearthed rich findings differentiating impacts that DID and CID have, with medium and long term implications, that are relevant for broader research. The questions and answers lend ground to revisiting existing debates on resettlement and critically engaging their ultimate objectives.
Vulnerable groups: Protection challenges.
Elsa Oliveira: 'I am here, and this is my life, but it's not all of me': Insights into the lives of migrant women sex workers in inner-city Johannesburg
In line with global trends, approximately 3.3% of the South African population is comprised of cross-border migrants. The 2011 UN World Urbanization Prospects Report projects that 60% of the global population will live in urban areas by the year 2030; 93% of this urban growth is estimated to take place in developing countries and approximately 80% of urban growth occurring in Asia and Africa. South Africa has urbanized at a faster rate than neighboring countries, and over 60% of the population now reside in urban areas.
This paper will discuss a participatory photo project with migrant women, men and transgender sex workers living and working in inner-city Johannesburg. This paper will examine the use of 'innovative' methods as a tool to gain further insight into the lives of under-represented groups of urban residents, such as migrant sex workers. Furthermore, this paper will engage with some of the more prevalent themes- migration, displacement, belonging (or not), discrimination, health and justice- that arose during the participatory photo project.
As global migration patterns are increasingly connected to urban centres, urban health practitioners, city planners, and government officials need to create appropriate responses to the populations that they serve. However, appropriate responses are often incomplete, nonexistent and/or fail to meet the specific needs of the more marginalised urban communities, such as migrant sex workers, that live and work in complex spaces of the central city.
Bani Gill: Behind the Silence: Sexual violence against Afghan and Burmese refugee women in Delhi.
Despite housing one of the world’s largest refugee populations, India is not a signatory to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or the 1967 Protocol. Instead, the Registration of Foreigners Act of 1939, the Foreigners Act of 1946, and the Foreigners Order of 1948 are the primary documents that regulate the status of refugees and asylum seekers in India. While recent developments have opened up the possibility of long term visas and work permits (2012), refugee communities in India continue to face discrimination and intimidation by often poor and disadvantaged host communities. In the absence a national framework, the experiences of refugees, particularly women, reveal that they remain vulnerable to multiple forms of sexual and gender based violence including domestic violence, sexual harassment and rape. On the basis of field research conducted with Afghani, Chin and Rohingya refugees settled in New Delhi, this paper investigates the multilayered categorization of these refugee women as a sexualized, racialised ‘Other’ which in a sense legitimizes multiple forms of violence against them, recreating cycles of marginalization. An acknowledgment of this violence, as well as the silence surrounding it, is crucial to understanding how the bodies of women continue to become the sites of political and ethnic conflict/ stereotyping, even in a supposed ‘safe’ space of refuge. What is the impact of such disempowering experiences upon refugee women and how can regional responses be structured accordingly? How do refugee women themselves challenge these conventional constructions of victimhood?
Sheila Gruner: “The textual mediation of displacement whether North or South: development policy as process”
Displacement is often seen primarily as a result of conflict and violence, rather than “produced” within the norms, policies and practices of dominant development even in times “peace”, coordinated or mediated “textually” through the application of global economic and environmental policies and projects. It is often overlooked that such displacement also occurs in the Global North, where Indigenous people, among others, have been affected by displacement via development and environmental policies, both historically as well as in the contemporary period. Forced displacement of Indigenous people in countries such as Canada for example, includes cultural, economic and territorial-political displacement, which has had lasting and inter-generational effects, in often similar ways as experienced by other systematically displaced people in the Global South. This paper will examine displacement as a hegemonic process of dominant development policy as a textually coordinated process, where “producing displacement” should be considered generally within the social relations of globalized and globalizing economies, in times of conflict or peace, whether North or South.
Johana Higgs: Transitions from Childhood: Child combatants of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias
Despite the wide range of literature on war, there has been limited research that examines the experiences of child soldiers and how they understand war. There has been even less research about how children experience movement during wartime, be it physical forced migration due to displacement, a change in their live due to structural conditions or less tangible factors that bring about a change in identity. How do children understand their experience when war forces them to migrate between places and how do children make these transitions between the different worlds in which they are forced to live, be it a civilian world or a militarized world? Taking a phenomenological approach and using ‘life worlds’ as a theoretical construct I seek to understand how the world of a child is structured by their political, economic, social and cultural environment and how children themselves understand their worlds in both a civilian context and a militarized context. I seek to understand the cultural aspects of each ‘world’ and how the transition process from civilian to soldier occurs when transitioning, forced or otherwise, from home life into life with an armed group. How does a child ‘become’ a soldier from civilian and then ‘become’ a civilian again once the war is over. Such understandings may shed light on how children are able to kill and commit crimes against others, the particular meanings that children formerly involved in war may attach to those conditions, and finally the tactics and strategies young people adopt in those circumstances. Through such understandings we can work towards creating safer environments for children.
Dejar el desplazamiento atrás: Condiciones necesarias para las soluciones duraderas.